Baby feeding quantity
Feeding Guide for the First YearFeeding Guide for the First Year | Johns Hopkins Medicine
Tiffani Hays, M.S., R.D., L.N., Director of the Pediatric Clinical Nutrition Education & Practice
Making appropriate food choices for your baby during the first year of life is very important. More growth occurs during the first year than at any other time. It’s important to feed your baby a variety of healthy foods at the proper time. Starting good eating habits at this early stage will help set healthy eating patterns for life.
Recommended Feeding Guide for the First Year
Breast milk and formula are designed to be the primary sources of nutrition throughout an infant’s first year of life. You should talk with your baby’s health care provider before starting solid foods. Solid foods should not begin before age 4 months because:
- Breast milk or formula provide your baby with all the nutrients that are needed.
- Your baby isn’t physically developed enough to eat solid food from a spoon.
- Feeding your baby solid food too early may result in poor feeding experiences and increased weight gain in both infancy and early childhood.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that all infants, children and adolescents take in enough vitamin D through supplements, formula or cow’s milk to prevent complications from deficiency of this vitamin. In November 2008, the AAP updated its recommendations for daily intake of vitamin D for infants, children, and adolescents who are healthy. It is now recommended that the minimum intake of vitamin D for these groups should be 400 IU per day, beginning soon after birth. Your baby’s health care provider can recommend the proper type and amount of vitamin D supplement.
Guide for Breast-feeding (Zero to 12 Months)
- In the early days after a baby’s birth, the mother should plan to breast-feed every two to three hours, including overnight. The mother should respond to the infant’s cues of hunger in a prompt and relaxed manner, providing a quiet and comfortable environment for both herself and the baby. Frustrated or distracted infants may have difficulties latching on.
- It is normal for infants to wake up overnight to feed for the first several months. If you have any concerns about overnight feeding, please discuss them with your health care provider.
- Alternate breasts to feed on, and allow the infant to completely empty the breast before switching to the other. This practice ensures the infant receives hindmilk, which is richer in nutrients.
- Follow your child’s feeding cues and resist forcing a schedule. Instead, rely on keeping track of wet diapers and your child’s growth to judge whether he or she is receiving enough breast milk. A mother’s milk changes as the infant grows, and feeding habits change as well in order to best meet a child’s needs. If you have any questions about whether your child is receiving enough breast milk, ask your health care provider.
- When not able to breast-feed, use a breast pump to extract milk and maintain milk supply. Pumped breast milk should be stored safely, using appropriate temperature guidelines. Pumped breast milk may be offered to infants in bottles, while responding to the same feeding cues to determine how much they take. Forcing bottles to be emptied may result in overfeeding and excess weight gain, even when feeding breast milk.
- With the proper support, a mother can meet the needs of most infants, even twins, so seek out help from your health care provider or lactation consultant for success.
Guide for Formula Feeding (Zero to 12 Months)
- When breast milk is not available, standard infant formula is an appropriate alternative for most healthy full term infants, but there are some differences between brands. Do not hesitate to ask your health care provider for a recommendation if you are unsure which formula to use.
- Bottle-feeding should be interactive, with the caregiver holding both the bottle and the infant. Propping a bottle has been linked to an increased risk of ear infections and tooth decay.
- Formula feeding should be in response to the infant’s needs and not based on a predetermined schedule. Look for cues of hunger and fullness to determine both when to feed and how much. The number of wet diapers per day and your child’s growth will reflect if he or she is getting enough formula. The chart below demonstrates common intakes for infants at various stages. However, ask your health care provider if you have any questions about how much formula your infant is taking.
- The amount of formula an infant takes will decrease as the baby increases intake of solid foods, but formula remains a significant source of calories, protein, calcium and vitamin D for the first year of life.
- Ask your health care provider before switching an infant less than 1 year of age from formula to cow’s milk or a cow’s milk alternative.
|Amount of formula per feeding
|Number of feedings per 24 hours
|2 to 4 ounces
|six to eight
|5 to 6 ounces
|five to six
|3 to 5 months
|6 to 7 ounces
|five to six
Complementary Feedings (After 6 Months of Age)
- Offer only breast milk or formula in bottles until 1 year of age unless specifically advised by your health care provider.
- Begin offering breast milk and/or formula in a cup starting at 6 months of age. Infants should drink breast milk and/or formula for the first year of life.
- Fruit juice is not recommended under 1 year of age.
- When introducing juice, offer 100% pasteurized juice and limit it to 4–6 ounces per day. Do NOT place juice in a bottle.
- Avoid giving any sugar-sweetened beverages to infants.
- Introduce solid foods when your infant is ready, at around 6 months of age depending on the infant’s development. Infants are ready to start eating solid foods when they can:
- sit up on their own or with a little support
- reach for and put things in their mouth
- open their mouth when seeing something coming
- keep food in their mouth rather than pushing it out onto the chin
- move food to the back of their mouth with their tongue
- turn their head away when they do not want something
- Prepare to introduce solid foods in a calm feeding environment where the infant is sitting upright and is appropriately supported and moderately hungry.
- Start with small amounts of solid food, feeding with a spoon or allowing finger feeding, then gradually increase the amount as the infant eats more and develops. Avoid offering breast milk or formula until after the solid-food experience has wound down.
- Expose infants to a wide variety of flavors and textures of healthy food. Don’t limit your baby’s food choices to the ones you like. Offering a range of foods early will pave the way for healthy eating habits.
- Maintain the division of responsibility when feeding.
- The caregiver is responsible for what to eat (offering appropriate variety and textures).
- The child is responsible for deciding whether to eat and how much.
- Avoid adding salt or sugar to make baby foods more appealing. Many babies and toddlers need to experience a new food multiple times before accepting it, and increased intakes of salt and sugar among children are associated with obesity in adults.
- Observe infants for any signs of intolerance when introducing a new food or texture, and discuss all concerns with your health care provider.
- Although convenient and safe, commercial baby foods are not required. Young children are more likely to eat foods they see others eating, so as long as they are observed to see how they handle new food in their mouths, baby-led weaning using table foods is an appropriate way to introduce solids.
- Avoid honey in any form during your child’s first year, as it can cause infant botulism. Address any concerns about developing food allergies with your health care provider.
- Don’t restrict fat and cholesterol in the diets of very young children, unless advised by your child’s health care provider. Children need calories, fat and cholesterol for the development of their brains and nervous systems, and for general growth.
Updated on July 26, 2019.
Breastfeeding Your Baby
Breastfeeding 101: Q&A with Lactation Expert Nadine Rosenblum
Developmental Milestones: Babies and Toddlers
Amount and Schedule of Baby Formula Feedings
- In the first week after birth, babies should be eating no more than about 1 to 2 ounces (30 to 60 ml) per feed.
- During the first month, babies gradually eat more until they take 3 to 4 ounces (90 to 120 ml) per feed, amounting to 32 ounces per day. Formula-fed babies typically feed on a more regular schedule, such as every 3 or 4 hours. Breastfed babies usually take smaller, more frequent feedings than formula-fed infants.
If your baby sleeps longer than 4 to 5 hours during the first few weeks after birth and starts missing feedings, wake them up and offer a bottle.
By the end of the first month: Your baby will be up to at least 3 to 4 ounces (120 mL) per feeding, with a fairly predictable schedule of feedings about every 3 to 4 hours.
By 6 months: Your baby will consume 6 to 8 ounces (180–240 mL) at each of 4 or 5 feedings in 24 hours.
Formula feeding based on body weight
On average, your baby should take in about 2½ ounces (75 mL) of infant formula a day for every pound (453 g) of body weight. But they probably will regulate their intake from day to day to meet their own specific needs, so let them tell you when they've had enough. If they become fidgety or easily distracted during a feeding, they're probably finished. If they drain the bottle and continues smacking their lips, they might still be hungry.
There are high and low limits, however. If your baby consistently seems to want more or less than this, discuss it with your pediatrician. Your baby should usually drink no more than an average of about 32 ounces (960 mL) of formula in 24 hours. Some babies have higher needs for sucking and may just want to suck on a pacifier after feeding.
Initially it is best to feed your formula-fed newborn a bottle on demand, or whenever they cry with hunger. As time passes, your baby will begin to develop a fairly regular timetable of their own. As you become familiar with their signals and needs, you'll be able to schedule their feedings around their routine.
Eating & sleeping patterns
Between 2 and 4 months of age (or when the baby weighs more than 12 lb. [5.4 kg]), most formula-fed babies no longer need a middle-of-the-night feedings. They're consuming more during the day, and their sleeping patterns have become more regular (although this varies considerably from baby to baby). Their stomach capacity has increased, too, which means they may go longer between daytime feedings—occasionally up to 4 or 5 hours at a time.
If your baby still seems to feed very frequently or consume larger amounts, try distracting them with play or with a pacifier. Sometimes patterns of obesity begin during infancy, so it is important not to overfeed your baby.
Getting to know your baby's feeding needs
The most important thing to remember, whether you breastfeed or bottlefeed, is that your baby's feeding needs are unique. No book―or website―can tell you precisely how much or how often they need to be fed or exactly how you should handle them during feedings. You will discover these things for yourself as you and your baby get to know each other.
- How Often and How Much Should Your Baby Eat?
- Making Sure Your Baby is Getting Enough Milk
- Is Your Baby Hungry or Full? Responsive Feeding Explained (Video)
- Remedies for Spitty Babies
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Union of Pediatricians of Russia
Nutrition for children from 1 to 3 years of age
The period from 1 to 3 years of life is a crucial stage in the transition to an adult type of nutrition, which has certain features. In order to ensure that all the necessary nutrients enter the child's body and at the same time prevent an excess of individual nutrients, nutrition should be balanced and varied. nine0003
The daily amount of food for children aged 1 to 1.5 years should be 1000-1200 g, from 1.5 to 3 years - 1200-1500 g, the amount of food in one feeding should not exceed 300-350 ml. The diet consists of three main meals per day and two snacks. It is considered optimal when breakfast is 25% of the total energy density of the diet, lunch is 30–35%, dinner is 20%, and additional meals are about 10%. In general, the child can eat the same food as the rest of the family. nine0003
In the diet of a child of 1–3 years of age , must be present daily: meat of animals or poultry, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables, fruits, bread, cereals, vegetable and butter; fish and eggs are included in the diet 2-3 times a week.
Cereal products: bread - 2-3 servings per day, cereals and side dishes - 1 time per day
Fruit and/or vegetables: at least 5 times a day
Dairy products: at least 3 servings per day (including those used to make cereals, yoghurts, fermented milk drinks, cottage cheese, infant formula or breast milk). nine0003
Domestic pediatricians recommend, when compiling a diet for children aged 1–3 years, preference should be given to specialized children's dairy products of industrial production that meet high quality requirements and safety indicators for this age. Most children's dairy products are additionally enriched with vitamins and/or minerals and other biologically active components, taking into account the physiological needs of children of this age. At the same time, in foreign recommendations, children over 1 year old are offered the gradual introduction of whole cow's milk, which is rich in fats necessary for proper growth and development, the absorption of vitamins A and D, the development of the child's brain and nervous system. nine0003
Meat dishes: 2-3 times a day
Fish dishes: 2-3 servings per week
Eggs: 2-3 per week
Dietary fats: 3-4 teaspoons of butter and/or vegetable oils per day
When cooking, use the minimum amount of salt and sugar, and do not add them to industrial products.
Offer your child a variety of foods and let them choose for themselves. Children love to eat on their own, so if possible, offer food that the child can eat with their hands. nine0003
It is important to remember that a baby can choke on pieces of food, so whatever you give your baby should be crushed or cut into small pieces that can be easily chewed.
Do not give to a small child: nuts, whole grapes, cherry tomatoes (unless quartered), whole carrots, seeds (such as pumpkin or sunflower seeds), round candies, legumes, raisins, because a child can eat them choke.
Also in the diet of children of the first 3 years of life should not be present:
Mushrooms; canned snacks, pickled vegetables and fruits
Home canned food
Dry concentrates for side dishes
Hot sauces, mustard, horseradish, pepper, vinegar, mayonnaise
Juices and drinks in the form of dry concentrates; sweet carbonated drinks
Products containing food additives (flavorings, dyes of artificial origin, including chewing gum), popcorn
Combined fats; cakes and pastries
It is important to remember that children of this age should not be given too spicy and spicy foods.
How much should a newborn eat: feeding chart
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As soon as the long-awaited event has happened and the baby is born, the mother is faced with many questions. One of the most frequently asked: how to feed and how much should a newborn eat? Indeed, this is a very important point, since a properly selected and debugged diet allows the child to grow and develop harmoniously, promotes good health and strengthens the immune system. How to calculate the norm for a baby from the first days of life to a year? nine0003
8 min. for reading Feb. 17, 2022
Listen to the experts
- First weeks of life
- One to four months
- Five-six months
- Seven to twelve months
How much breast milk a newborn should eat: table
Not enough breast milk or not at all: what to do
Norms and stages of introducing complementary foods
- First stage - vegetables
- Second stage - cereals
- Third stage - fruits
- Fourth stage - meat
- Fifth stage - new flavors
An example of a daily diet for a 6-8 month old baby
Frequently Asked Questions
Listen to the experts baby's age.All these data are usually voiced to parents during a doctor's appointment and entered into the card for further assessment of the child's condition. Comparison of the actual weight and the prescribed norms allows you to find out whether the child is eating well enough and, if necessary, to correct mistakes made during feeding. If something is not clear to you at the appointment with the pediatrician, do not be afraid to ask again and clarify. After all, only a specialist can give competent recommendations specifically for your baby, based on the results of an examination or analysis. The advice of friends, grandmothers and mothers from various forums may be good, but they do not take into account the individual characteristics and needs of your child's body. So, they may not work or even hurt. nine0003
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1.First month of life
As soon as the baby is born, it is immediately brought to the mother's breast to be fed. This helps to strengthen the immunity of the baby and stimulates lactation in the mother. During this period, there is still no milk in the breast, but there is a very nutritious transparent sweetish liquid - colostrum. It is released in the first two or three days after birth and supplies the child with all the necessary substances. To eat, the baby needs a few drops: on the first day of life, the small stomach holds only 7 milliliters. On the second day of life, the baby begins to eat more often. It needs to be fed on demand or every two to three hours, while the baby eats within 10-20 milliliters at one time. Thus, per day the norm will be approximately 90 milliliters. Starting from the third day after birth, the mother actively produces breast milk, the volume of which increases as the child grows. In the first week of life, the baby should eat from 50 to 80 milliliters of milk at a time, and 400 milliliters per day. At two weeks of age, the daily ration should be 20% of the weight of the newborn, and closer to a month - about 600 milliliters. It is important to note that these figures are approximate. Each baby needs its own, certain amount of milk or mixture, depending on individual characteristics: height, weight, mother's milk quality, calorie content of the mixture and the rate of development of the baby. nine0003
See also: Breastfeeding: the first steps after childbirth
2. From one to four months
Every day the baby grows, gains weight and increases its daily portions of milk. Having reached the month, the baby is already eating 90-100 milliliters six to seven times a day. After one month, the norms become as follows:
- At two months, the child should eat from 120 to 150 milliliters at a time. The daily norm, therefore, is 700-800 milliliters. nine0076
- A three-month-old baby should eat between 150 and 180 milliliters. In this case, it is recommended to observe the frequency of feeding no more than six to seven times a day.
- From the fourth month, babies need 180-210 milliliters of milk or infant formula. The average amount per day is not less than 1/6 of the baby's weight.
A six-month-old child normally eats 210-240 milliliters at a time, and the total amount of food per day should be 1/7 of body weight, or 800-1000 milliliters. Also, if there are no contraindications, complementary foods are introduced from six months. nine0003
4. From seven to twelve months
During this period, a single portion of breast milk for a baby ranges from 210 to 240 milliliters. At the same time, the average amount per day is not less than 1/8 of the child's body weight. Vegetable, fruit and meat purees, dairy-free and milk porridges are introduced into the diet (if the baby is not allergic to cow's milk proteins).
Below is a table that describes in detail the daily intake of a newborn for each age up to a year.
How much breast milk should a newborn eat: table
|The amount of milk eaten per feeding, ml
|The amount of milk eaten per day, ml
|1/5 child weight
|1/6 child weight
|1/6 child weight
|1/7 baby weight (800-1000)
|1/8 weight baby
Remember that every child is unique, has individual characteristics and needs. Therefore, slight deviations from the standard indicators are quite possible.
Not enough breast milk or not at all: what to do
When a baby cries after waking up, he is hungry. Modern doctors do not advise mothers to maintain any strict feeding schedule. If the mother gives the baby a breast when he asks, and the baby eats for her own pleasure and at the same time sleeps soundly and well, smiles and is not naughty, then she is full and completely satisfied. nine0003
But if the baby cries and sleeps badly, then perhaps he does not have enough milk. In this case, check if the baby is eating his age norm, and try to keep track of this indicator in the future. Found that you don't have enough breast milk? Do not worry, it is better to immediately consult a doctor. The specialist will help you find a way to support milk production and improve lactation.
If you cannot solve the problem and normalize lactation, consult a pediatrician and find the right supplemental formula for your child. With strict observance of all the doctor's recommendations, instructions for preparation and dosages indicated on the package, the mixture makes it possible to compensate for the lack of breast milk and provide the baby with the necessary amount of nutrients. nine0003
Even if you don't have enough breast milk to fully meet your baby's needs, try to remain on partial breastfeeding for as long as possible. After all, the ideal food for a child is mother's milk.
Complementary feeding rules and stages
As a rule, complementary foods are introduced from the age of six months. Before you start exploring new products, you should consult with your pediatrician. In general, different types of food are introduced in stages, starting with very small portions. nine0003
1.First step - vegetables
According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the best starting food is a one-component vegetable puree, such as zucchini, broccoli, cauliflower or potatoes. If everything goes well, you can try pumpkin, carrot, pea and tomato puree a little later.
It takes seven to ten days to fully introduce the product into the baby's diet. We start with half or a whole teaspoon once a day until breastfeeding. If there are no allergic or other adverse reactions, you can continue the introduction of this product, gradually increasing the dose to a full serving - 100-150 grams. nine0003
2. The second stage - cereals
After the introduction of vegetable puree, we recommend diversifying the baby's menu with cereals. For acquaintance, it is better to choose liquid one-component gluten-free cereals, for example, rice or buckwheat. Then you can add oatmeal or semolina.
The initial portion of porridge is half or one teaspoon. Gradually increase the portion to a full - 150 grams.
3.Third stage — fruits
We also start fruit complementary foods with one-component low-allergenic purees, such as apple, pear, plum, banana. These products are not only tasty, but also contain vitamins and minerals necessary for the child. nine0003
Fruit purees are also introduced with caution, starting with half or a whole teaspoon. Gradually, the portion increases to 100-150 grams.
Find out more: Gerber Baby Food: Puree Range
4.Stage Four - Meat
Meat is an essential product for development, rich in iron and protein, which is well absorbed in the body. It is introduced in the form of a homogeneous one-component puree from dietary turkey, rabbit, chicken, veal or lamb. nine0003
At the beginning we give a try - half or one teaspoon, over time we bring the portion to 60 grams.
5. The fifth stage - new tastes
After the successful introduction of the above products, the baby forms a full-fledged varied menu. So you can introduce the young gourmet to new flavors that could previously provoke an allergy: multi-component purees, fruit and cereal cocktails, children's snacks, pieces of fresh fruits and vegetables.
See also: Introduction of complementary foods to children with food allergies
Example of a daily diet for a baby at 6-8 months
A child from six to eight months should be given complementary foods three times a day. Further, at the age of nine to eleven months, the amount is increased to four times a day. To make it easier and clearer, check out two options for a full-fledged daily diet, which outlines what and how much a newborn should eat.
See also: Nutrition for a 7-month-old baby: making a menu for a baby
1. How to warm up breast milk?
Use the bottle warmer to warm breast milk that has been stored in the refrigerator. If this is not at hand, put a tightly closed bottle in a container of warm water and hold it there until the milk warms to body temperature - 37 ° C.
2. How often should a newborn eat? nine0126
A newborn needs to be fed every 2-3 hours, ie 10-12 times a day.
3. How much milk does a newborn eat?
During the first days of life, the baby has a very small stomach and a poorly developed sucking reflex. Therefore, for one feeding, the newborn eats 7-9 milliliters of colostrum. Breast milk from the mother appears only on the third or fourth day.
4. How to calculate how much a child should eat? nine0126
To understand how much a newborn should eat, you need to know his age and weight. Data for calculation: from 10 days to 1.5 months, the baby needs such an amount of food, the weight of which is approximately 1/5 of the child's body weight; from 1.5 to 4 months - 1/6, from 4 to 6 months - 1/7; from 6 to 8 months - 1/8; from 8 to 12 months - 1/9 of the body weight.
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Breastfeeding: benefits for the baby, health for the mother 12 rules of healthy nutrition for children Baby does not eat well, how to feed? nine0126
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