How long do babies feed every two hours
Breastfeeding and Returning to Your Workplace | Nutrition
Many parents have questions about expressing breast milk when returning to their workplace after having a baby. Whether returning to work from maternity leave or starting a new job after having your baby, you may be working from home, at a work site, or some combination of the two. Below you will find common questions with information and resources to help you prepare to return to your workplace. The Office on Women’s Healthexternal icon provides additional information.
What are my rights as a breastfeeding employee?
The federal Break Time for Nursing Mothers Provisionexternal icon of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires employers to support breastfeeding employees by providing:
- A reasonable break time to express breast milk for 1 year after your child’s birth.
- A private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk.
This law applies to most hourly employees and some salaried employees (nonexempt workers) who are covered by the Fair Labor Standards Actexternal icon. Most states also have laws that protect breastfeeding employees.
For breastfeeding people who work in settings with higher risk of potential exposure to COVID-19, such as health care settings, they should wear a mask while breastfeeding or expressing milk in the workplace. Learn more at Care for Breastfeeding People.
How do I talk with my employer about my needs as I return to work?
If you work outside your home, talk with your employer before you return to your workplace about expressing breast milk during work hours. Having this conversation early will help make sure a plan is in place.
Talk with your employer about:
- Where there is a private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk.
- Where breast milk can be stored (eg, refrigerator, insulated cooler).
- Where pump parts can be cleaned.
- What times are best for you during your work schedule for expressing milk.
The timing and length of breaks needed to express milk and clean breast pump parts may change from day to day and over time. It may be helpful to discuss this with your employer since they may not be familiar with the process of expressing milk or cleaning pump equipment.
Some bras and pumps are designed to be used hands-free! This allows you to collect milk for your baby while doing other things.
How should I clean my breast pump kit parts at my workplace?
For best practices on cleaning pump kit parts, visit CDC’s FAQ page on cleaning breast milk pump parts.
What if I don’t have time to wash pump parts or have access to a sink and water to wash parts?
Careful cleaning of your breast pump parts after every use is important to prevent germs from contaminating the milk you feed your baby. Cleaning breast pump parts at work may require creative solutions depending on your workplace. Here are some ways that you might handle these challenges:
- Bring multiple breast pump kits to your workplace so that a clean kit can be used for each pumping session. Take used parts home after work and wash them all at once.
- If you have access to a microwave, rinse parts and then use steam bags made for cleaning breast pump parts. Some pump parts should not be steamed in the microwave, so be sure to check the manufacturer’s instructions.
- Learn how to hand express directly into milk collection containers.
Can I store my pump parts in the refrigerator between pump sessions while at my workplace?
The CDC and most breast pump manufacturers recommend cleaning pump parts after every use to help protect babies from germs.
More information about storing pump parts in the refrigerator between pumping sessions can be found on CDC’s FAQ page on breast pump cleaning.
Where can I store breast milk at my workplace?
- In the refrigerator: Expressed breast milk is a food and may be stored alongside other foods in any refrigerator that is appropriate for food storage.
- In an insulated cooler: You can store and carry freshly expressed milk in an insulated cooler bag with frozen ice packs for up to 24 hours. Once you get home use the milk right away, store it in the refrigerator, or freeze it.
Always label breast milk containers with your name and the date you expressed the milk. You can also label your cooler with your name and contact information.
How can I pump and store breast milk if my work requires travel?
For detailed information about travel, visit Travel Recommendations for Nursing Families
What else might help me continue breastfeeding after returning to work?
- Practice using your pump or hand expressing breast milk before returning to work so you are comfortable with the process.
- Build a supply of frozen breast milk before returning to work.
- Think about how much breast milk you will need to leave at home or at childcare for your baby before your first day back at work.
- Think about how often you will need to pump or express breast milk while at work to have enough for your baby while you are apart.
- Once breastfeeding is going well, practice bottle feeding your breast milk so your baby will be used to a bottle while you are away at work. If your baby is having trouble taking a bottle at first, try having another adult feed your baby with the bottle. You can also try different types of bottles and nipples.
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- Break times and spaces to express milkexternal icon
- Helpful tips for pumping breast milkexternal icon
- General breast milk storage
- Breast milk storage at work
- FAQs on breast pump cleaning
- Types of employers that provide breastfeeding support in the workplaceexternal icon
- Traveling with Children | Transportation Security Administration (tsa.gov)external icon
Breastfeeding FAQs: How Much and How Often (for Parents)
Breastfeeding is a natural thing to do, but it still comes with its fair share of questions. Here's what you need to know about how often and how long to breastfeed your baby.
How Often Should I Breastfeed?
Newborn babies should breastfeed 8–12 times per day for about the first month. Breast milk is easily digested, so newborns are hungry often. Frequent feedings helps stimulate your milk production during the first few weeks.
By the time your baby is 1–2 months old, he or she probably will nurse 7–9 times a day.
In the first few weeks of life, breastfeeding should be "on demand" (when your baby is hungry), which is about every 1-1/2 to 3 hours. As newborns get older, they'll nurse less often, and may have a more predictable schedule. Some might feed every 90 minutes, whereas others might go 2–3 hours between feedings.
Newborns should not go more than about 4 hours without feeding, even overnight.
How Do I Count the Time Between Feedings?
Count the length of time between feedings from the time your baby begins to nurse (rather than at the end) to when your little one starts nursing again. In other words, when your doctor asks how often your baby is feeding, you can say "about every 2 hours" if your first feeding started at 6 a. m., the next feeding was around 8 a.m., then 10 a.m., and so on.
Especially at first, you might feel like you're nursing around the clock, which is normal. Soon enough, your baby will go longer between feedings.
How Long Does Nursing Take?
Newborns may nurse for up to 20 minutes or longer on one or both breasts. As babies get older and more skilled at breastfeeding, they may take about 5–10 minutes on each side.
How long it takes to breastfeed depends on you, your baby, and other things, such as whether:
- your milk supply has come in (this usually happens 2–5 days after birth)
- your let-down reflex (which causes milk to flow from the nipple) happens right away or after a few minutes into a feeding
- your milk flow is slow or fast
- the baby has a good latch, taking in as much as possible of your areola (the dark circle of skin around your nipple)
- your baby begins gulping right away or takes it slow
- your baby is sleepy or distracted
Call your doctor if you're worried that your baby's feedings seem too short or too long.
When Should I Alternate Breasts?
Alternate breasts and try to give each one the same amount of nursing time throughout the day. This helps to keep up your milk supply in both breasts and prevents painful engorgement (when your breasts overfill with milk).
You may switch breasts in the middle of each feeding and then alternate which breast you offer first for each feeding. Can't remember where your baby last nursed? It can help to attach a reminder — like a safety pin or small ribbon — to your bra strap so you'll know which breast your baby last nursed on. Then, start with that breast at the next feeding. Or, keep a notebook handy or use a breastfeeding app to keep track of how your baby feeds.
Your baby may like switching breasts at each feeding or prefer to nurse just on one side. If so, then offer the other breast at the next feeding. Do whatever works best and is the most comfortable for you and your baby.
How Often Should I Burp My Baby During Feedings?
After your baby finishes on one side, try burping before switching breasts. Sometimes, the movement alone can be enough to cause a baby to burp.
Some infants need more burping, others less, and it can vary from feeding to feeding.
If your baby spits up a lot, try burping more often. While it's normal for infants to "spit up" a small amount after eating or during burping, a baby should not vomit after feeding. If your baby throws up all or most of a feeding, there could be a problem that needs medical care. If you're worried that your baby is spitting up too much, call your doctor.
Why Is My Baby Hungrier Than Usual?
When babies go through a period of rapid growth (called a growth spurt), they want to eat more than usual. These can happen at any time. But in the early months, growth spurts often happen when a baby is:
- 7–14 days old
- 2 months old
- 4 months old
- 6 months old
During these times and whenever your baby seems extra hungry, follow your little one's hunger cues. You may need to breastfeed more often for a while.
How Long Should I Breastfeed My Baby?
That's a personal choice. Experts recommend that babies be breastfed exclusively (without formula, water, juice, non–breast milk, or food) for the first 6 months. Then, breastfeeding can continue until 12 months (and beyond) if it's working for you and your baby.
Breastfeeding has many benefits for mom and baby both. Studies show that breastfeeding can lessen a baby's chances of diarrhea, ear infections, and bacterial meningitis, or make symptoms less severe. Breastfeeding also may protect children from sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), diabetes, obesity, and asthma.
For moms, breastfeeding burns calories and helps shrink the uterus. In fact, breastfeeding moms might return to their pre–pregnancy shape and weight quicker. Breastfeeding also helps lower a woman's risk of diseases like:
- breast cancer
- high blood pressure
- heart disease
It also might help protect moms from uterine cancer and ovarian cancer.
Breastfeeding - on schedule or on demand? | Mamovedia
There are eternal themes in parenthood and childhood, one of the tiki topics is breastfeeding. It would seem that everything has already been said on this topic, WHO recommendations have been received, but there are still disputes about how to properly feed the baby.
If we are feeding on demand, then how to remove the baby from the breast correctly if he is used to demanding it all the time?
There are many adherents of this or that way of feeding, and everyone has good arguments and everyone is right in their own way. Let's take a look at each of them:
Pediatricians believe that a baby should be taught to a timed regimen from birth and from the age of 7 days, he is quite ready to eat according to the regimen. Of course, in the first days of life, the baby is applied quite often (10-12 times), as it should be, but from the age of one month, he can already switch to 7-8 meals a day. Most often, children overeat when they eat on demand, as during feeding according to the regimen, they eat the required portion of 120-140 ml in the first month and more and more thereafter. When feeding on demand, the baby feeds every 30-40 minutes or once an hour, which in combination leads to eating more food than necessary due to such “snacking”. As a result, you may be overweight. nine0003
In the first months, the feeding regimen should be every 2 hours, from about 3 months, the regimen can be every 3-3.5 hours, while focusing on the physiological needs of the baby.
The main advantages of feeding according to the regimen are:
- good and high-quality digestion
- the child’s habit of eating hourly, that is, a regimen is formed
- good and correct weight gain and household chores
But along with this, you can find disadvantages of feeding according to the regimen
The feeling of hunger in a small child, like any person, is regulated by internal metabolism, that is, the body itself regulates the amount of food and its consumption. This regulation leads to the fact that the body develops normally. But if the body is given a regimen every 2-3 hours, for example, then this can bring some harm, so we adjust and rearrange the body, and this is not physiological.
We all experience a feeling of hunger when the blood sugar level drops, the pancreas is the regulator of the sugar level, and if it is disturbed by the same regimen, this can lead to all kinds of diseases.
Today, more than half is still on the side of feeding on demand, and here are its advantages:
- Convenience. Mom is not in stress mode to keep the alarm going. The child wanted to eat - the mother fed. nine0020
- Meal quantity dosage . The child himself doses the amount of food that he needs.
- Prevention of lactostasis in the mother
The main disadvantages of feeding on demand, according to adherents of the regimen, is the attachment of the child to the breast. More frequent attachments practically turn into the so-called “spring on the chest”, every hour or an hour and a half. This does not favorably affect the intestines of the child, and overfeeding is also possible, due to which the baby is gaining weight more than normal. nine0003
Those who are on the side of demand feeding believe that if the child is healthy and everything is fine, then he will not overeat on demand. Children who are overexcited, have gone through a difficult birth, have a birth injury or have a pain syndrome, for them very often the act of sucking is a variant of calming, the child often asks for breasts and this is not always due to hunger. In this case, the child can be offered a pacifier.
When weaning starts, from 6-7 months, then transferring the child to a regimen that will be more convenient and expedient, since giving mashed potatoes, meat or porridge every 30-40 minutes, is basically impossible. There are a lot of tips and recommendations, but in reality it is difficult to implement, since at this age it is already an independent person who has his own emotions and habits. If the child is 6 months old still eats on demand, then meals can be replaced with complementary foods, the child will eat up and this will be a smooth transition to a regular diet.
Despite all the pros and cons, the breast for a baby is not only food, but also a way to calm down, anesthetize, a way to get maternal love and affection, a way to get rid of fears of the outside world. Therefore, it is up to you to give love according to the schedule and hours or at the request of the baby.
Breastfeeding in the first month: what to expect
Not sure how to establish lactation and increase milk production? If you need help, support, or just want to know what to expect, read our First Month Breastfeeding Recommendations
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The first weeks of breastfeeding are a very stressful period. If at times you feel like you can't handle it, know that you are not alone. Feeding your baby all day long is completely natural and helps produce breast milk, but can be quite tiring at times. Be patient, think about yourself and remember: after the first month, when milk production stabilizes, it will become easier. nine0003
How often should a baby be breastfed?
Babies are born with a small stomach that grows rapidly with increasing milk production: in the first week it is no larger than an apricot, and after two weeks it is already the size of a large chicken egg. 1.2 Let the child eat as much as he wants and when he wants. This will help him quickly regain the weight lost after birth and grow and develop further.
“Be prepared to feed every two to three hours throughout the day. At night, the intervals between feedings can be longer: three to four or even five hours, says Cathy Garbin, a recognized international expert on breastfeeding. Some eat quickly and are satiated in 15 minutes, while others take an entire hour to feed. Do not compare your breastfeeding regimen with that of other mothers - it is very likely that there will be nothing in common between them. nine0003
At each feed, give your baby a full meal from one breast and then offer a second one, but don't worry if the baby doesn't take it. When the baby is full, he lets go of his chest and at the same time looks relaxed and satisfied - so much so that he can immediately fall asleep. The next time you feed, start on the other breast. You can monitor the order of the mammary glands during feeding using a special application.
Why does the child always ask for a breast?
The first month is usually the hardest time to breastfeed. But do not think that because the baby is constantly hungry and asks for a breast almost every 45 minutes, then you do not have enough milk. nine0003
In the first month, the baby needs to eat frequently to start and stimulate the mother's milk production. It lays the foundation for a stable milk supply in the future. 3
In addition, we must not forget that the child needs almost constant contact with the mother. The bright light and noise of the surrounding world at first frighten the baby, and only by clinging to his mother, he can calm down.
Sarah, mother of three from the UK, confirms: “Crying is not always a sign of hunger. Sometimes my kids just wanted me to be around and begged for breasts to calm them down. Use a sling. Place the cradle next to the bed. Don't look at the clock. Take advantage of every opportunity to relax. Forget about cleaning. Let those around you take care of you. And not three days, but six weeks at least! Hug your baby, enjoy the comfort - and trust your body." nine0003
Do I need to feed my baby on a schedule?
Your baby is still too young for a strict daily routine, so
forget about breastfeeding schedules and focus on his needs.
“Volumes have been written about how to feed a baby on a schedule, but babies don't read or understand books,” Cathy says. - All children are different. Some people can eat on a schedule, but most can't. Most often, over time, the child develops his own schedule.
Some mothers report that their babies are fine with scheduled feedings, but they are probably just the few babies who would eat every four hours anyway. Adults rarely eat and drink the same foods at the same time of day - so why do we expect this from toddlers?
Offer your baby the breast at the first sign of hunger. Crying is already the last stage, so be attentive to early signs: the baby licks his lips, opens his mouth, sucks his fist, turns his head with his mouth open - looking for the breast. nine0079 4
What is a "milk flush"?
At the beginning of each feed, a hungry baby actively sucks on the nipple,
thereby stimulating the milk flow reflex - the movement of milk through the milk ducts. 5
“Nipple stimulation triggers the release of the hormone oxytocin,” Cathy explains. “Oxytocin is distributed throughout the body and causes the muscles around the milk glands to contract and the milk ducts to dilate. This stimulates the flow of milk. nine0003
If the flushing reflex fails, milk will not come out. This is a hormonal response, and under stress it may not work at all or work poorly. Therefore, it is so important that you feel comfortable and calm when feeding.
“Studies show that each mother has a different rhythm of hot flashes during one feed,” Kathy continues, “Oxytocin is a short-acting hormone, it breaks down in just 30-40 seconds after formation. Milk begins to flow, the baby eats, the effect of oxytocin ends, but then a new rush of milk occurs, the baby continues to suckle the breast, and this process is repeated cyclically. That is why, during feeding, the child periodically stops and rests - this is how nature intended. nine0003
The flow of milk may be accompanied by a strong sensation of movement or tingling in the chest, although 21% of mothers, according to surveys, do not feel anything at all. 5 Cathy explains: “Many women only feel the first rush of milk. If you do not feel hot flashes, do not worry: since the child eats normally, most likely, you simply do not understand that they are.
How do you know if a baby is getting enough milk?
Since it is impossible to track how much milk a baby eats while breastfeeding, mothers sometimes worry that the baby is malnourished. Trust your child and your body. nine0003
After a rush of milk, the baby usually begins to suckle more slowly. Some mothers clearly hear how the baby swallows, others do not notice it. But one way or another, the child himself will show when he is full - just watch carefully. Many babies make two or three approaches to the breast at one feeding. 6
“When a child has had enough, it is noticeable almost immediately: a kind of “milk intoxication” sets in. The baby is relaxed and makes it clear with his whole body that he is completely full, says Katie, “Diapers are another great way to assess whether the baby is getting enough milk. During this period, a breastfed baby should have at least five wet diapers a day and at least two portions of soft yellow stool, and often more.” nine0003
From one month until weaning at six months of age, a baby's stool (if exclusively breastfed) should look the same every day: yellow, grainy, loose, and watery.
When is the child's birth weight restored?
Most newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. This is normal and should not be cause for concern. As a rule, weight is reduced by 5-7%, although some may lose up to 10%. One way or another, by 10–14 days, almost all newborns regain their birth weight. In the first three to four months, the minimum expected weight gain is an average of 150 grams per week. But one week the child may gain weight faster and the next slower, so it is necessary that the attending physician monitor the health and growth of the baby constantly. nine0079 7.8
At the slightest doubt or signs of dehydration, such as
dark urine, no stool for more than 24 hours, retraction of the fontanelle (soft spot on the head), yellowing of the skin, drowsiness, lethargy, lack of appetite (ability to four to six hours without feeding), you should immediately consult a doctor. 7
What is "cluster feeding"?
When a baby asks to breastfeed very often for several hours, this is called cluster feeding. nine0079 6 The peak often occurs in the evening between 18:00 and 22:00, exactly when many babies are especially restless and need close contact with their mother. Most often, mothers complain about this in the period from two to nine weeks after childbirth. This is perfectly normal and common behavior as long as the baby is otherwise healthy, eating well, gaining weight normally, and appears content throughout the day. 9
Cluster feeding can be caused by a sharp jump in the development of the body - during this period the baby especially needs love, comfort and a sense of security. The growing brain of a child is so excited that it can be difficult for him to turn off, or it just scares the baby. nine0079 9 If a child is overworked, it is often difficult for him or her to calm down on his own and the help of adults is needed. And breastfeeding is the best way to calm the baby, because breast milk is not only food, but also pain reliever and a source of happiness hormones. 10
“Nobody told me about cluster feeding, so for the first 10 days I just went crazy with worry - I was sure that my milk was not enough for the baby,” recalls Camilla, a mother from Australia, “It was a very difficult period . I was advised to pump and supplement until I finally contacted the Australian Breastfeeding Association. There they explained to me what was happening: it turned out that it was not about milk at all. nine0003
Remember, this is temporary. Try to prepare dinner for yourself in the afternoon, when the baby is fast asleep, so that in the evening, when he begins to often breastfeed, you have the opportunity to quickly warm up the food and have a snack. If you are not alone, arrange to carry and rock the baby in turns so that you have the opportunity to rest. If you have no one to turn to for help and you feel that your strength is leaving you, put the baby in the crib and rest for a few minutes, and then pick it up again. nine0003
Ask your partner, family and friends to help you with household chores, cooking and caring for older children if you have any. If possible, hire an au pair. Get as much rest as possible, eat well and drink plenty of water.
“My daughter slept a lot during the day, but from 23:00 to 5:00 the cluster feeding period began, which was very tiring,” recalls Jenal, a mother from the USA, “My husband tried his best to make life easier for me - washed, cleaned, cooked, changed diapers, let me sleep at every opportunity and never tired of assuring me that we were doing well. nine0003
If you are concerned about the frequency of breastfeeding, it is worth contacting a specialist. “Check with a lactation consultant or doctor to see if this is indicative of any problems,” recommends Cathy. “Resist the temptation to supplement your baby with formula (unless recommended by your doctor) until you find the cause. It may not be a matter of limited milk production at all - it may be that the child is inefficiently sucking it.
When will breastfeeding become easier? nine0077
This early stage is very special and does not last long. Although sometimes it seems that there will be no end to it, rest assured: it will get easier soon! By the end of the first month, breast milk production will stabilize, and the baby will become stronger and learn to suck better at the breast. 2.3 Any problems with latch on will most likely be resolved by this time, and the body will be able to produce milk more efficiently, so inflammation and leakage of milk will begin to subside.
“The first four to six weeks are the hardest, but then things start to get better,” Cathy assures. It just needs to be experienced!” nine0003
The longer breastfeeding continues, the more benefits it brings, from saving on formula and improving sleep quality 11-13 to boosting your baby's immune system 14 and reducing your risk of certain cancers. 15
“When you feel like you're pushing yourself, try to go from feed to feed and day to day,” advises Hannah, a UK mom. “I was sure I wouldn’t make it to eight weeks. And now I have been breastfeeding for almost 17 weeks, and I dare say it is very easy.” nine0003
Read the resource Breastfeeding beyond the first month: what to expect
1 Naveed M et al. An autopsy study of relationship between perinatal stomach capacity and birth weight. Indian J Gastroenterol .1992;11(4):156-158. - Navid M. et al., Association between prenatal gastric volume and birth weight. Autopsy. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1992;11(4):156-158.
2 Neville MC et al. Studies in human lactation: milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation .Am J Clinl Nutr .1988;48(6):1375-1386. at the beginning and at the peak of lactation." Am F Clean Nutr. 1988;48(6):1375-1386.
3 Kent JC et al. Principles for maintaining or increasing breast milk production. J Obstet , Gynecol , & Neonatal Nurs . 2012;41(1):114-121. - Kent J.S. et al., "Principles for Maintaining and Increasing Milk Production". J Obstet Ginecol Neoneutal Nurs. 2012;41(1):114-121. nine0195
4 Australian Breastfeeding Feeding cues ; 2017 Sep [ cited 2018 Feb ]. - Australian Breastfeeding Association [Internet], Feed Ready Signals; September 2017 [cited February 2018]
5 Kent JC et al. Response of breasts to different stimulation patterns of an electric breast pump. J Human Lact . 2003;19(2):179-186. - Kent J.S. et al., Breast Response to Different Types of Electric Breast Pump Stimulation. J Human Lact (Journal of the International Association of Lactation Consultants). 2003;19(2):179-186.
6) Kent JC et al . Volume and frequency of breastfeedings and fat content of breast milk throughout the day. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3): e 387-395. - Kent J.S. et al., "Amount and frequency of breastfeeding and fat content of breast milk during the day." Pediatrix (Pediatrics). 2006;117(3):e387-95.
7 Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A guide for the medical profession. 7th ed. Maryland Heights MO, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010. 1128 p . - Lawrence R.A., Lawrence R.M., "Breastfeeding: A guide for healthcare professionals." Seventh edition. Publisher Maryland Heights , Missouri, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010. P. 1128.
8 World Health Organization. [Internet]. Child growth standards; 2018 [cited 2018 Feb] - World Health Organization. [Internet]. Child Growth Standards 2018 [cited February 2018]. nine0195
9 Australian Breastfeeding Association . [ Internet ]. Cluster feeding and fussing babies ; Dec 2017 [ cited 2018 Feb ] - Australian Breastfeeding Association [Internet], Cluster Feeding and Screaming Babies; December 2017 [cited February 2018]. nine0195
10 Moberg KU, Prime DK. Oxytocin effects in mothers and infants during breastfeeding. Infant . 2013;9(6):201-206.- Moberg K, Prime DK, "Oxytocin effects on mother and child during breastfeeding". Infant. 2013;9(6):201-206.
11 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [Internet]. Surgeon General Breastfeeding factsheet; 2011 Jan 20 [cited 2017 Feb] - Department of Health and Human Services [Internet], "Breastfeeding Facts from the Chief Medical Officer", Jan 20, 2011 [cited Feb 2017]
12 Kendall-Tackett K et al. The effect of feeding method on sleep duration, maternal well-being, and postpartum depression. clinical lactation. 2011;1;2(2):22-26. - Kendall-Tuckett, K. et al., "Influence of feeding pattern on sleep duration, maternal well-being and the development of postpartum depression." Clinical Lactation. 2011;2(2):22-26.
13 Brown A, Harries V. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: Association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight. Breast Med . 2015;10(5):246-252. - Brown A., Harris W., "Night feedings and infant sleep in the first year of life and their association with feeding frequency, daytime supplementation, and infant weight." Brest Med (Breastfeeding Medicine). 2015;10(5):246-252.
14 Hassiotou F et al. Maternal and infant infections stimulate a rapid leukocyte response in breastmilk. Clin Transl immunology. 2013;2(4). - Hassiot F. et al., "Infectious diseases of the mother and child stimulate a rapid leukocyte reaction in breast milk." nine0195 Clean Transl Immunology. 2013;2(4):e3.
15 Li DP et al. Breastfeeding and ovarian cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 40 epidemiological studies. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014;15(12):4829-4837.