How often should you feed a formula fed baby

Formula Feeding FAQs: How Much and How Often (for Parents)

Whether you plan to formula feed your baby from the start, want to supplement your breast milk with formula, or are switching from breast milk to formula, you probably have questions.

Here are answers to some common questions about formula feeding.

How Often Should I Feed My Baby?

Newborns and young babies should be fed whenever they seem hungry. This is called on-demand feeding.

After the first few days of life, most healthy formula-fed newborns feed about every 2–3 hours. As they get bigger and their tummies can hold more milk, they usually eat about every 3–4 hours. As babies get older, they’ll settle into a more predictable feeding routine and go longer stretches at night without needing a bottle.

Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about feeding your baby, especially if your baby is very small, is not gaining weight, or was born early (prematurely).

How Can I Tell When My Baby Is Hungry?

Signs that babies are hungry include:

  • moving their heads from side to side
  • opening their mouths
  • sticking out their tongues
  • placing their hands, fingers, and fists to their mouths
  • puckering their lips as if to suck
  • nuzzling again their mothers' breasts
  • showing the rooting reflex (when a baby moves its mouth in the direction of something that's stroking or touching its cheek)

Babies should be fed before they get upset and cry. Crying is a late sign of hunger. But every time your baby cries is not because of hunger. Sometimes babies just need to be cuddled or changed. Or they could be sick, tired, too hot or too cold, in pain, or have colic.

How Much Should My Baby Drink?

In the first few weeks, give 2- to 3-ounce (60- to 90-milliliter) bottles to your newborn. Give more or less depending on your baby’s hunger cues.

Here's a general look at how much your baby may be eating at different ages:

  • On average, a newborn drinks about 1.5–3 ounces (45–90 milliliters) every 2–3 hours. This amount increases as your baby grows and can take more at each feeding.
  • At about 2 months, your baby may drink about 4–5 ounces (120–150 milliliters) every 3–4 hours.
  • At 4 months, your baby may drink about 4–6 ounces (120-180 milliliters) at each feeding, depending on how often they eat.
  • By 6 months, your baby may drink 6–8 ounces (180–230 milliliters) about 4–5 times a day.   

Watch for signs that your baby is hungry or full. Respond to these cues and let your baby stop when full. A baby who is full may suck with less enthusiasm, stop, or turn away from the bottle.

Why Does My Baby Seem Hungrier Than Usual?

As babies grow, they begin to eat more at each feeding and can go longer between feedings. Still, there may be times when your little one seems hungrier than usual.

Your baby may be going through a period of rapid growth (called a growth spurt). These can happen at any time, but in the early months are common at around:

  • 7–14 days old
  • between 3–6 weeks
  • 4 months
  • 6 months

During these times and whenever your baby seems especially hungry, follow their hunger cues and continue to feed on demand, increasing the amount of formula you give as needed.

Is My Baby Eating Enough?

At times, you may wonder whether your baby is getting enough nutrients for healthy growth and development. Babies who get enough to eat seem satisfied after eating and are regularly peeing and pooping.

At your baby’s checkups, the doctor will review your baby’s growth chart, track your little one’s development, and answer any questions. Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns about your baby’s feeding and nutrition.

Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD

Date reviewed: November 2021

Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding (for Parents)

Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their baby is one of the biggest decisions expectant and new parents will make.

Healt experts believe breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants. But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their comfort level, lifestyle, and specific medical situations.

For moms who can't breastfeed or who decide not to, infant formula is a healthy alternative. Formula provides babies with the nutrients they need to grow and thrive.

Some mothers worry that if they don't breastfeed, they won't bond with their baby. But the truth is, loving mothers will always create a special bond with their children. And feeding — no matter how — is a great time to strengthen that bond.

The decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. Weighing the pros and cons of each method can help you decide what is best for you and your baby.

All About Breastfeeding

Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both mother and baby. It provides ideal nourishment and a special bonding experience that many mothers cherish.

A number of health organizations — including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) — recommend breastfeeding as the best choice for babies. Breastfeeding helps defend against infections, prevent allergies, and protect against a number of chronic conditions.

The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months. Beyond that, breastfeeding is encouraged until at least 12 months, and longer if both the mother and baby are willing.

Here are some of the many benefits of breastfeeding:

Fighting infections and other conditions. Breastfed babies have fewer infections and hospitalizations than formula-fed infants. During breastfeeding, antibodies and other germ-fighting factors pass from a mother to her baby and strengthen the immune system. This helps lower a baby's chances of getting many infections, including:

  • ear infections
  • diarrhea
  • respiratory infections
  • meningitis

Breastfeeding also may protect babies against:

  • allergies
  • asthma
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Breastfeeding is particularly beneficial for premature babies.

Nutrition and ease of digestion. Often called the "perfect food" for a human baby's digestive system, breast milk's components — lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat — are easily digested by a newborn.

As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. Breast milk tends to be more easily digested so that breastfed babies have fewer bouts of diarrhea or constipation.

Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. One exception is vitamin D — the AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age).

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates formula companies to ensure they provide all the necessary nutrients (including vitamin D) in their formulas. Still, commercial formulas can't completely match breast milk's exact composition. Why? Because milk is a living substance made by each mother for her individual infant, a process that can't be duplicated in a factory.

Free. Breast milk doesn't cost a cent, while the cost of formula quickly adds up. And unless you're pumping breast milk and giving it to your baby, there's no need for bottles, nipples, and other supplies that can be costly. Since breastfed babies are less likely to be sick, that may mean they make fewer trips to the doctor's office, so fewer co-pays and less money are paid for prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines.

Different tastes. Nursing mothers usually need 300 to 500 extra calories per day, which should come from a wide variety of well-balanced foods. This introduces breastfed babies to different tastes through their mothers' breast milk, which has different flavors depending on what their mothers have eaten. By tasting the foods of their "culture," breastfed infants more easily accept solid foods.

Convenience. With no last-minute runs to the store for more formula, breast milk is always fresh and available whether you're home or out and about. And when women breastfeed, there's no need to wash bottles and nipples or warm up bottles in the middle of the night.

Smarter babies. Some studies suggest that children who were exclusively breastfed have slightly higher IQs than children who were formula fed.

"Skin-to-skin" contact. Many nursing mothers really enjoy the experience of bonding so closely with their babies. And the skin-to-skin contact can enhance the emotional connection between mother and infant.

Beneficial for mom, too. The ability to totally nourish a baby can help a new mother feel confident in her ability to care for her baby. Breastfeeding also burns calories and helps shrink the uterus, so nursing moms may be able to return to their pre-pregnancy shape and weight quicker. Also, studies show that breastfeeding helps lower the risk of breast cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and also may help decrease the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer.


Breastfeeding Challenges

Breastfeeding can be easy from the get-go for some mothers, but take a while to get used to for others. Moms and babies need plenty of patience to get used to the routine of breastfeeding.

Common concerns of new moms, especially during the first few weeks and months, may include:

Personal comfort. Initially, many moms feel uncomfortable with breastfeeding. But with proper education, support, and practice, most moms overcome this.

Latch-on pain is normal for the first week to 10 days, and should last less than a minute with each feeding. But if breastfeeding hurts throughout feedings, or if their nipples and/or breasts are sore, it's a good idea for breastfeeding mothers to get help from a lactation consultant or their doctor. Many times, it's just a matter of using the proper technique, but sometimes pain can mean that something else is going on, like an infection.

Time and frequency of feedings. Breastfeeding requires a big time commitment from mothers, especially in the beginning, when babies feed often. A breastfeeding schedule or the need to pump breast milk during the day can make it harder for some moms to work, run errands, or travel.

And breastfed babies do need to eat more often than babies who take formula, because breast milk digests faster than formula. This means mom may find herself in demand every 2 or 3 hours (maybe more, maybe less) in the first few weeks.

Diet. Women who are breastfeeding need to be aware of what they eat and drink, since these can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should not eat fish that are high in mercury and should limit consumption of lower mercury fish.

If a mom drinks alcohol, a small amount can pass to the baby through breast milk. She should wait at least 2 hours after a single alcoholic drink to breastfeed to avoid passing any alcohol to the baby. Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) or less per day because it can cause problems like restlessness and irritability in some babies.

Maternal medical conditions, medicines, and breast surgery. Medical conditions such as HIV or AIDS or those that involve chemotherapy or treatment with certain medicines can make breastfeeding unsafe. A woman should check with her doctor or a lactation consultant if she's unsure if she should breastfeed with a specific condition. Women should always check with the doctor about the safety of taking medicines while breastfeeding, including over-the-counter and herbal medicines.

Mothers who've had breast surgery, such as a reduction, may have difficulty with their milk supply if their milk ducts have been severed. In this situation, a woman should to talk to her doctor about her concerns and work with a lactation specialist.


All About Formula Feeding

Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients that breastfed babies need to get from supplements.

Manufactured under sterile conditions, commercial formulas attempt to duplicate mother's milk using a complex combination of proteins, sugars, fats, and vitamins that aren't possible to create at home. So if you don't breastfeed your baby, it's important to use only commercially prepared formula and not try to make your own.

Besides medical concerns that may prevent breastfeeding, for some women, breastfeeding may be too difficult or stressful. Here are other reasons women may choose to formula feed:

Convenience. Either parent (or another caregiver) can feed the baby a bottle at any time (although this is also true for women who pump their breast milk). This allows mom to share the feeding duties and helps her partner to feel more involved in the crucial feeding process and the bonding that often comes with it.

Flexibility. Once the bottles are made, a formula-feeding mother can leave her baby with a partner or caregiver and know that her little one's feedings are taken care of. There's no need to pump or to schedule work or other obligations and activities around the baby's feeding schedule. And formula-feeding moms don't need to find a private place to nurse in public.

Time and frequency of feedings. Because formula is less digestible than breast milk, formula-fed babies usually need to eat less often than breastfed babies.

Diet. Women who opt to formula feed don't have to worry about the things they eat or drink that could affect their babies.

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Formula Feeding Challenges

As with breastfeeding, there are some challenges to consider when deciding whether to formula feed.

Lack of antibodies. None of the antibodies found in breast milk are in manufactured formula. So formula can't provide a baby with the added protection against infection and illness that breast milk does.

Can't match the complexity of breast milk. Manufactured formulas have yet to duplicate the complexity of breast milk, which changes as the baby's needs change.

Planning and organization. Unlike breast milk — which is always available, unlimited, and served at the right temperature — formula feeding your baby requires planning and organization to make sure that you have what you need when you need it. Parents must buy formula and make sure it's always on hand to avoid late-night runs to the store.

And it's important to always have the necessary supplies (like bottles and nipples) clean, easily accessible, and ready to go — otherwise, you will have a very hungry, very fussy baby to answer to. With 8-10 feedings in a 24-hour period, parents can quickly get overwhelmed if they're not prepared and organized.

Expense. Formula can be costly. Powdered formula is the least expensive, followed by concentrated, with ready-to-feed being the most expensive. And specialty formulas (such as soy and hypoallergenic) cost more — sometimes far more — than the basic formulas. During the first year of life, the cost of basic formula can run about $1,500.

Possibility of producing gas and constipation. Formula-fed babies may have more gas and firmer bowel movements than breastfed babies.

Making a Choice

Deciding how you will feed your baby can be a hard decision. You'll really only know the right choice for your family when your baby comes.

Many women decide on one method before the birth and then change their minds after their baby is born. And many women decide to breastfeed and supplement with formula because they find that is the best choice for their family and their lifestyle.

While you're weighing the pros and cons, talk to your doctor or lactation consultant. These health care providers can give you more information about your options and help you make the best decision for your family.

How to feed a baby? About mixed and artificial feeding

This article is designed to help mothers understand the intricacies of artificial feeding.

Mixed feeding

For various reasons (mother and child diseases, hypolactia, early work, etc.), some mothers use mixed feeding.

When breastfeeding in combination with formula, it is important to keep feeding on demand, and weight gain must be constantly monitored. It is important that supplementary feeding is introduced only after breastfeeding. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the following recommendations of specialists: the breast must be offered to the child at every feeding, because. alternating breastfeeding and formula feeding will lead to the extinction of lactation. With a small amount of milk, the child is applied to both breasts during feeding, and if there is little supplementary feeding, it is offered from a spoon, and not from a bottle. Bottles should be chosen with a dense elastic nipple and a small hole.

In cases where there are problems with the composition of breast milk, special breast milk fortifiers can be used under medical supervision.

Artificial feeding

Tatiana N., mother of two:

– From the first days we bought expensive mixtures with probiotics for our son, and changed them according to age. After a year, up to 20 months, fermented milk mixtures were given at night.

It is necessary to observe the mode and quantity of the mixture, because many children are prone to constipation, and mixtures contribute to this. It is also important to choose the right nipple in the bottle: beveled or round, the hole in the nipple also matters. If the mixture is thick, with probiotics, a size 2 or 3 hole will do. If normal, then the second size will do. But you can’t pick it up by eye the first time, you have to buy different mixtures and try.

When formula feeding, it is recommended to feed at intervals of three or three and a half hours, ideally with a six hour break at night. After the introduction of complementary foods, the child can be transferred to five meals a day. There are two ways to calculate the volume of food. In the first option, to calculate the amount of food in the first week of life, you can multiply the day of the child's life by 70 or 80 ml - depending on weight: for children with a birth weight of up to 3200 kg or more, respectively (for example, on the fifth day of life, a baby , who was born with a weight of 3100 grams, should eat 5 * 70 ml = 350 ml of food). In the second option, up to two months, a child should eat per day a volume of food that is equal to a fifth of body weight, from two to four months - a sixth, up to six months - a seventh, and up to a year - up to an eighth of body weight, excluding water, juice, etc. (i.e. a three-month-old baby weighing about five kilograms should eat about 800-1000 ml of food). Of course, these are only indicative figures, everything is individual.

In the nutrition of children, it is mandatory to use adapted infant formulas (infant formula). They are close to women's milk in all components - protein, fat, carbohydrate, amino acid, vitamin and mineral.

Types of milk formulas:

  • formulas based on cow's and goat's milk,
  • "initial" or "starter" formulas, "follow-up" formulas, formulas for children from 0 to 12 months (indicated by numbers),
  • dry and liquid (liquid, such as PreNAN, used for medicinal purposes - author's note) infant formula,
  • fresh and sour milk,
  • with and without additional ingredients.

When formula-feeding, the mother needs to provide the baby with tactile contact, so it is better to feed, holding him in her arms “skin to skin”.

It is believed that goat milk mixtures cannot cause allergies, but unfortunately this is a myth. But they are easily absorbed and digested, have a pleasant taste and are rich in nutrients. Therefore, in case of intolerance to individual components of cow's milk or an allergy to it, goat's milk mixtures are used.

  1. "Initial" or "starter" formulas ("1") are intended for children in the first 6 months of life. The composition is as close as possible to women's milk.
  2. "Following" mixtures ("2") - for feeding children in the second half of life. Contain a higher amount of protein, less like breast milk.
  3. "Follow-up" formulas ("3") - for feeding young children.
  4. "0 to 12 months" formulas can be used throughout the first year of a child's life.

The composition of the mixtures

The mixtures are close in composition to human milk due to: normal development of the retina and brain, absorption of fats. It is indispensable for children in the first few months of life, because. not formed in the body;

  • the use of polyunsaturated fatty acids and lactose in combination with dextrinmaltose,
  • reducing the content of mineral salts and introducing iodine, selenium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, the content of which in cow's milk is lower than in women's milk.
  • Prebiotics are non-digestible food components that have a positive effect on health by affecting bacteria in the human intestine. Prebiotics include some carbohydrates.

    Nucleotides, pro- and prebiotics are often added to adapted milk formulas. Nucleotides influence the formation of children's immunity. The introduction of pre- and probiotics ensures the normal intestinal microflora.

    Adapted fermented milk products are also used in infant nutrition. They are prepared using special colonies of bacteria. Such mixtures contain protective substances, lactic acid, lower lactose levels, and milk protein is partially split, which somewhat reduces allergenicity. They improve the composition of the intestinal microflora, strengthen local immunity, and are able to regulate intestinal motility in case of constipation and diarrhea.

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that have a positive effect on human health.

    Adapted fermented milk mixtures can be used from the first weeks of life as a supplement to the main fresh mixtures. They are recommended at the risk of nutrition-related diseases, with reduced appetite, dysbacteriosis, frequent respiratory infections and during an epidemic of colds. Powdered fermented milk mixtures with low acidity are sometimes used even as a staple food.

    Elena F., young mother:

    – She was in the hospital for eight days because of breast problems, plus she waited a couple of days after antibiotics. It was then difficult for my daughter to take the breast, so at first she expressed milk into a bottle, but she also gave the breast. As a result, it turned out to establish breastfeeding, I almost do not feed anymore. When I was only on the mixture (ate "Bellakt Optimum"), the chair was tight. When they switched to milk, and the mixture as a supplement, everything returned to normal.

    At high risk of developing atopic dermatitis - if both parents and siblings suffer from allergic diseases - mixtures based on partially hydrolyzed cow's or goat's milk protein are preferred.

    How to choose the right mixture?

    Infants who require formula and formula feeding should receive only adapted milk formulas for proper development. When choosing a milk formula, it is necessary to take into account the age of the child, the work of the gastrointestinal tract, the risk of allergies, diseases, the nature and possible side effects of taking medications, the financial level of the family, the individual tolerance of this particular mixture and the tastes of the child.

    From the first weeks of a child's life, preference should be given to fresh formulas, then, if necessary, to combine fresh and fermented milk formulas.

    Important: an excess of fermented milk mixtures in the diet of a child of the first year of life can cause persistent regurgitation and metabolic disorders. From the age of six months, “follow-up” mixtures are recommended. In the first and second half of life, mixtures "from 0 to 12 months" can also be used. For children aged approximately 10 months to 3 years, formulas with the number "3" are recommended.

    If the child's body tolerates the formula well, there is no regurgitation, vomiting, loose or poorly digested stools, constipation, skin and other manifestations of food allergies, anemia, the child eats with pleasure, then the mixture is chosen correctly.

    Examples of choosing a formula for children of the first year of life : (o overview of a typical assortment of Bobruisk convenience stores ) Bellakt Immunis 1+ and 2+, Frisolac, Frisomel, NAN, Nestogen, Nutrilak, Semper Baby 1 and 2, Winnie, Hipp, Humana.

  • Formulas for children with low lactase activity, with breast milk oligosaccharides: Nutrilon-low lactose, Similac.
  • Mixtures for children with regurgitation and vomiting, constipation, colic: Nutrilon antireflux, Bellakt KM2, Bellakt AR, Frisovoy.
  • Formulas for children with diarrhea and severe intolerance to cow's milk, hydrolysates: Nutri-Soy, Pepti-Junior, Frisosoy, Frisopep, Alfare Amino.
  • Immunity strengthening and intestinal microflora improving mixtures: NAN with bifidobacteria, Semper Bifidus.
  • Formulas for premature and small babies: Nenatal, Bellakt PRE, Frisopre.
  • Fermented milk mixtures: NAN fermented milk, Nestogen fermented milk, Bellakt KM.
  • Goat milk mixtures: Nanny 1.2, Kabrita 1.2, MD mil SP Goat, Mamako Premium.
  • Important : if you use mixtures with bifidobacteria, strictly control the temperature - it should not exceed 45 degrees. An opened pack of any mixture should be stored in accordance with the requirements indicated on the box. Any mixture is prepared for one feeding and is not stored.
    An example of a bottle with a convex anatomical nipple.

    Tips from moms on choosing bottles and nipples:

    • Most people prefer plastic bottles of famous brands (cheap and bought in random places can contain harmful impurities!),
    • the volume should be appropriate for age: 150 ml to start, and after a year 300 ml is also possible,
    • the neck is preferably wide, so it is more convenient to pour the mixture,
    • the shape of the bottle should not be complicated - in this case, even with a brush it is difficult to wash it well,
    • for babies who hold the bottle themselves, it’s good to take a narrowed in the middle or with removable handles and with an anti-slip coating,
    • it is advisable to check (read reviews) if the bottle does not leak when you turn it over,
    • most mothers advise taking “anti-colic » bottles,
    • nipple, most likely, will have to be selected individually, but it is recommended to take an anatomical convex one, the grip of which is as close as possible to the shape of the female nipple. The majority of respondents are in favor of silicone orthodontic nipples, but some, on the contrary, prefer softer round latex ones;
    • the hole in the nipple for water should be “one”, and for the mixture “two” or “three”;
    • any nipples are used for no more than two or three months, latex ones last less. It is necessary to strictly observe the service life of the bottle itself;
    • Please read the care instructions carefully before using the bottle for the first time. Ideally, after each use, the bottle is sterilized, and before preparing the mixture, it is washed with boiled water;
    • all mothers are advised to keep two or three bottles in stock.

    The material used data from educational and methodological manuals I "Feeding healthy children in the first year of life" ( Zhernosek V.F., Dyubkova T.P. ).

    Afterword from the leading column

    Dear Bobruisk women, feed your babies with love and tenderness, and nature will do the rest. Be patient and attentive - and everything will work out for the best.

    Ekaterina NOVITSKAYA, host of the section "Mom on maternity leave"

    Any questions about the development, upbringing, problems of your children, you can send me an email: [email protected]

    Let's discuss together!

    newborn feeding regimen on IV, how to properly bottle feed a baby

    The desire for a child to grow up strong and healthy is natural for mothers. And the health of a newborn begins with proper nutrition. Mother's milk has always been considered the best option for feeding - the most healthy and nutritious food for infants. However, in some cases, breastfeeding is not possible. And then mixtures come to the aid of mothers.

    Content: Hide

    1. In what cases is the transition to artificial feeding
    2. How to choose a mixture
    3. The basic rules of artificial feeding
    4. The main errors for artificial feeding
    5. 9005

      in which cases are required for which cases are required.


      Medical contraindications to breastfeeding. There are a number of diseases in which breast milk is prohibited. On the mother's side, these are HIV, an open form of tuberculosis, dangerous infections, and a serious state of health. On the part of the child, these are leucinosis, galactosemia, and individual food intolerance. It is not necessary to take tests after hearing the terrible names of diseases. All newborns are checked in maternity hospitals for their presence. But allergies are not so easy to identify. Many newborns have skin rashes and redness, which may be due to a reaction to an aggressive environment. Only a strict diet for the mother can help here, so that her milk does not contain allergens, monitoring the baby and consulting a doctor.

      Lack of lactation or its complete cessation. This is the second objective reason for transferring a child from breast milk to formula. Lactation does not always come in the right amount and it can be increased. It happens that milk disappears a few days after the birth of the crumbs. This often depends on the individual characteristics of the mother's body. So that the child does not starve, he is first transferred to mixed, and then completely to artificial feeding.

      Insufficient nutritional value of mother's milk. Usually this problem can be solved without resorting to the transition to IoT, but this is not always possible. A woman may have a lot of milk, but it will be like water in both color and consistency. In such cases, doctors give advice to the mother on nutrition in order to increase the fat content of milk and its usefulness. If the milk remains watery, the child stops eating, cries of hunger, loses weight. The only way out in this situation is the transition to the mixture.

      Impossibility of regular feeding. Children who, for a number of reasons, are separated from their mother for long periods of time are transferred to artificial feeding: the woman is in a hospital, going to work or study, business trips, etc. If the break in breastfeeding is one-time, then restoring lactation and breastfeeding is still possible . However, more often in such cases, breastfeeding has to be abandoned.

      Mother's personal wish. Unfortunately, there are cases when a woman, having every opportunity to breastfeed her baby, refuses to breastfeed for various subjective reasons. In this case, lactation is interrupted, and the baby is transferred to the mixture.

      See also: Newborn weight gain by month

      How to choose a formula

      If you are going to transfer your baby to artificial feeding, then the first thing you will encounter will be the choice of nutrition. Today there are a large number of different mixtures: adapted and non-adapted, dairy and sour-milk, dry and liquid. There are mixtures against regurgitation, hypoallergenic, for premature babies, etc. How to choose the optimal replacement for mother's milk from such a variety?

      • Make your choice only after consulting a pediatrician. The doctor will examine the baby and give all the necessary recommendations.
      • Monitor your child. When adapting to a new diet, the child may have small rashes, but they disappear if the body begins to absorb the mixture normally. The baby eats with appetite, he has a normal stool and no colic. Otherwise, the mixture must be changed.
      • If there is a need to replace the mixture with a thicker formula (anti regurgitation), choose the same brand of food that was previously used.
      • Consider the age of the baby. All mixtures have a gradation by months of life.
      • Prefer adapted formulas, they are usually easier to digest

      Basic rules for formula feeding save you a lot of problems.

      1. Choose proven blends. This applies not only to the choice of brand, but also to the packaging itself. Look at its integrity, check the expiration date.

      2. Observe the storage conditions for opened packaging at home (in a dry and cool place, but in no case in the refrigerator, the mixture must not become damp). Remember that the open mixture is stored for three weeks. After this period, it can no longer be used.

      3. Strictly follow the instructions when preparing meals. It is indicated on the packaging. Water for the preparation of the mixture must be purified and boiled. The optimal temperature for preparing the mixture is 36–37 °C. You can cook food right in the bottle. This is quite convenient, since baby bottles have a volume scale that makes it easier to calculate the right amount of scoops. The mixture must be stirred until completely dissolved, and then cooled to an acceptable temperature so that the baby can drink without burning himself. You can check if the milk is hot by dropping it on your wrist - there the skin is most tender and sensitive. If the temperature is almost not felt, then the mixture can be given to the child.

      4. Sterilize baby dishes. Baby bottles and nipples should be thoroughly rinsed using a special brush so that no food residue remains. You can use children's dishwashing detergents. Do not wash bottles with common cleaning products that you are used to using, no matter how good they are. After washing, be sure to place the dishes in boiling water. This helps to kill harmful bacteria. It is recommended to sterilize children's dishes during the entire first year of a baby's life. Then you can limit yourself to just a thorough wash.

      5. Hold the bottle in a semi-vertical position when feeding. The milk should completely fill the nipple. This prevents the child from swallowing air. After feeding, it is necessary to hold the baby in a column for several minutes to avoid spitting up.

      6. Monitor the amount of formula consumed and the feeding schedule. Maintaining a balance is extremely important for the healthy and full development of the baby.

      • Calculate the amount of formula to be prepared based on the baby's weight. It is body weight, and not the age of the crumbs, that is the main indicator when calculating the daily nutritional intake. You can find out the required volume of the mixture for feeding either at a pediatrician’s appointment, or on your own (it is recommended to use Maslov’s caloric method when calculating).
      • Observe the breaks between feedings. During the day they should be 3.5 hours, at night - 6. Try not to break the schedule.
      • Give your child water. Supplementation with water is a necessity for artificial feeding. Water should be given somewhere in the middle of the interval between feedings or 10-15 minutes after it. Avoid supplementation before meals.

      Major mistakes in artificial feeding

      Overfeeding. The desire to feed the child is understandable, but in the case of mixtures, feeding must be approached strictly. On artificial feeding, the child is normally gaining weight very well. Excess body weight is an additional burden on the body and health problems. Even an adult can find it difficult to cope with problems from being overweight. What to say about the tiny weak body of a newborn? Follow the diet and control the daily milk intake. Fortunately, you can always see how much the child ate.

      Unreasonable mixture change. If the child eats the current mixture well, then it is not necessary to change it.

      Learn more