Advantages of bottle feeding babies

Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding (for Parents)

Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their baby is one of the biggest decisions expectant and new parents will make.

Healt experts believe breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants. But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their comfort level, lifestyle, and specific medical situations.

For moms who can't breastfeed or who decide not to, infant formula is a healthy alternative. Formula provides babies with the nutrients they need to grow and thrive.

Some mothers worry that if they don't breastfeed, they won't bond with their baby. But the truth is, loving mothers will always create a special bond with their children. And feeding — no matter how — is a great time to strengthen that bond.

The decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. Weighing the pros and cons of each method can help you decide what is best for you and your baby.

All About Breastfeeding

Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both mother and baby. It provides ideal nourishment and a special bonding experience that many mothers cherish.

A number of health organizations — including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) — recommend breastfeeding as the best choice for babies. Breastfeeding helps defend against infections, prevent allergies, and protect against a number of chronic conditions.

The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months. Beyond that, breastfeeding is encouraged until at least 12 months, and longer if both the mother and baby are willing.

Here are some of the many benefits of breastfeeding:

Fighting infections and other conditions. Breastfed babies have fewer infections and hospitalizations than formula-fed infants. During breastfeeding, antibodies and other germ-fighting factors pass from a mother to her baby and strengthen the immune system. This helps lower a baby's chances of getting many infections, including:

  • ear infections
  • diarrhea
  • respiratory infections
  • meningitis

Breastfeeding also may protect babies against:

  • allergies
  • asthma
  • diabetes
  • obesity
  • sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Breastfeeding is particularly beneficial for premature babies.

Nutrition and ease of digestion. Often called the "perfect food" for a human baby's digestive system, breast milk's components — lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat — are easily digested by a newborn.

As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. Breast milk tends to be more easily digested so that breastfed babies have fewer bouts of diarrhea or constipation.

Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. One exception is vitamin D — the AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age).

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates formula companies to ensure they provide all the necessary nutrients (including vitamin D) in their formulas. Still, commercial formulas can't completely match breast milk's exact composition. Why? Because milk is a living substance made by each mother for her individual infant, a process that can't be duplicated in a factory.

Free. Breast milk doesn't cost a cent, while the cost of formula quickly adds up. And unless you're pumping breast milk and giving it to your baby, there's no need for bottles, nipples, and other supplies that can be costly. Since breastfed babies are less likely to be sick, that may mean they make fewer trips to the doctor's office, so fewer co-pays and less money are paid for prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines.

Different tastes. Nursing mothers usually need 300 to 500 extra calories per day, which should come from a wide variety of well-balanced foods. This introduces breastfed babies to different tastes through their mothers' breast milk, which has different flavors depending on what their mothers have eaten. By tasting the foods of their "culture," breastfed infants more easily accept solid foods.

Convenience. With no last-minute runs to the store for more formula, breast milk is always fresh and available whether you're home or out and about. And when women breastfeed, there's no need to wash bottles and nipples or warm up bottles in the middle of the night.

Smarter babies. Some studies suggest that children who were exclusively breastfed have slightly higher IQs than children who were formula fed.

"Skin-to-skin" contact. Many nursing mothers really enjoy the experience of bonding so closely with their babies. And the skin-to-skin contact can enhance the emotional connection between mother and infant.

Beneficial for mom, too. The ability to totally nourish a baby can help a new mother feel confident in her ability to care for her baby. Breastfeeding also burns calories and helps shrink the uterus, so nursing moms may be able to return to their pre-pregnancy shape and weight quicker. Also, studies show that breastfeeding helps lower the risk of breast cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and also may help decrease the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer.


Breastfeeding Challenges

Breastfeeding can be easy from the get-go for some mothers, but take a while to get used to for others. Moms and babies need plenty of patience to get used to the routine of breastfeeding.

Common concerns of new moms, especially during the first few weeks and months, may include:

Personal comfort. Initially, many moms feel uncomfortable with breastfeeding. But with proper education, support, and practice, most moms overcome this.

Latch-on pain is normal for the first week to 10 days, and should last less than a minute with each feeding. But if breastfeeding hurts throughout feedings, or if their nipples and/or breasts are sore, it's a good idea for breastfeeding mothers to get help from a lactation consultant or their doctor. Many times, it's just a matter of using the proper technique, but sometimes pain can mean that something else is going on, like an infection.

Time and frequency of feedings. Breastfeeding requires a big time commitment from mothers, especially in the beginning, when babies feed often. A breastfeeding schedule or the need to pump breast milk during the day can make it harder for some moms to work, run errands, or travel.

And breastfed babies do need to eat more often than babies who take formula, because breast milk digests faster than formula. This means mom may find herself in demand every 2 or 3 hours (maybe more, maybe less) in the first few weeks.

Diet. Women who are breastfeeding need to be aware of what they eat and drink, since these can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should not eat fish that are high in mercury and should limit consumption of lower mercury fish.

If a mom drinks alcohol, a small amount can pass to the baby through breast milk. She should wait at least 2 hours after a single alcoholic drink to breastfeed to avoid passing any alcohol to the baby. Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) or less per day because it can cause problems like restlessness and irritability in some babies.

Maternal medical conditions, medicines, and breast surgery. Medical conditions such as HIV or AIDS or those that involve chemotherapy or treatment with certain medicines can make breastfeeding unsafe. A woman should check with her doctor or a lactation consultant if she's unsure if she should breastfeed with a specific condition. Women should always check with the doctor about the safety of taking medicines while breastfeeding, including over-the-counter and herbal medicines.

Mothers who've had breast surgery, such as a reduction, may have difficulty with their milk supply if their milk ducts have been severed. In this situation, a woman should to talk to her doctor about her concerns and work with a lactation specialist.


All About Formula Feeding

Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients that breastfed babies need to get from supplements.

Manufactured under sterile conditions, commercial formulas attempt to duplicate mother's milk using a complex combination of proteins, sugars, fats, and vitamins that aren't possible to create at home. So if you don't breastfeed your baby, it's important to use only commercially prepared formula and not try to make your own.

Besides medical concerns that may prevent breastfeeding, for some women, breastfeeding may be too difficult or stressful. Here are other reasons women may choose to formula feed:

Convenience. Either parent (or another caregiver) can feed the baby a bottle at any time (although this is also true for women who pump their breast milk). This allows mom to share the feeding duties and helps her partner to feel more involved in the crucial feeding process and the bonding that often comes with it.

Flexibility. Once the bottles are made, a formula-feeding mother can leave her baby with a partner or caregiver and know that her little one's feedings are taken care of. There's no need to pump or to schedule work or other obligations and activities around the baby's feeding schedule. And formula-feeding moms don't need to find a private place to nurse in public.

Time and frequency of feedings. Because formula is less digestible than breast milk, formula-fed babies usually need to eat less often than breastfed babies.

Diet. Women who opt to formula feed don't have to worry about the things they eat or drink that could affect their babies.

page 7

Formula Feeding Challenges

As with breastfeeding, there are some challenges to consider when deciding whether to formula feed.

Lack of antibodies. None of the antibodies found in breast milk are in manufactured formula. So formula can't provide a baby with the added protection against infection and illness that breast milk does.

Can't match the complexity of breast milk. Manufactured formulas have yet to duplicate the complexity of breast milk, which changes as the baby's needs change.

Planning and organization. Unlike breast milk — which is always available, unlimited, and served at the right temperature — formula feeding your baby requires planning and organization to make sure that you have what you need when you need it. Parents must buy formula and make sure it's always on hand to avoid late-night runs to the store.

And it's important to always have the necessary supplies (like bottles and nipples) clean, easily accessible, and ready to go — otherwise, you will have a very hungry, very fussy baby to answer to. With 8-10 feedings in a 24-hour period, parents can quickly get overwhelmed if they're not prepared and organized.

Expense. Formula can be costly. Powdered formula is the least expensive, followed by concentrated, with ready-to-feed being the most expensive. And specialty formulas (such as soy and hypoallergenic) cost more — sometimes far more — than the basic formulas. During the first year of life, the cost of basic formula can run about $1,500.

Possibility of producing gas and constipation. Formula-fed babies may have more gas and firmer bowel movements than breastfed babies.

Making a Choice

Deciding how you will feed your baby can be a hard decision. You'll really only know the right choice for your family when your baby comes.

Many women decide on one method before the birth and then change their minds after their baby is born. And many women decide to breastfeed and supplement with formula because they find that is the best choice for their family and their lifestyle.

While you're weighing the pros and cons, talk to your doctor or lactation consultant. These health care providers can give you more information about your options and help you make the best decision for your family.

Breastfeeding vs.

Formula Feeding

Written by Gina Shaw

In this Article

  • Breastfeeding
  • Formula Feeding
  • Supplemental Feeding

A big decision new moms must make for their little one’s nutrition is breast vs. formula.

Some people can be uncomfortable around women while they are breastfeeding. However, if you pull out a bottle of formula, there are those who may criticize you for not feeding your baby what they might consider "nature's perfect food" -- breast milk.

Welcome to mommy guilt. No matter what you decide, other people will surely have an opinion. Only one thing really matters: Which choice is right for you and your baby?


The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) says breast milk is the best nutrition for infants. Babies should be only breastfed for the first 6 months, according to the AAP. After the baby begins to eat other foods, the AAP encourages mothers to continue to breastfeed until at least the baby’s first birthday, or longer if the child and the parent are willing. Breastfeeding up to 2 years and beyond is beneficial for both, especially for mothers. Long-term breastfeeding may protect against diabetes, high blood pressure, and breast and ovarian cancers.

Breast milk is good for your baby in many ways:

  • It contains the proper proportion of nutrients that your baby needs, including protein, carbohydrates, fat, and calcium.
  • It provides natural antibodies that help your baby resist illnesses, such as ear infections.
  • It's usually more easily digested than formula. So breastfed babies are often less constipated and gassy.
  • It may lower the risk of sudden infant death syndrome in the first year of your baby's life.
  • It may raise your child's intelligence. Studies show breastfed babies have higher levels of cognitive function.
  • Breast milk may even help your child in later years, by reducing the risk of being overweight, and of developing asthma, allergies, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, Hodgkin's disease, leukemia, and lymphoma.
  • It’s always available and it’s free.

Breastfeeding is good for moms, too. Women who breastfeed have a reduced risk of breast cancer, diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis, and ovarian cancer. It can also help you lose your baby weight more easily, and make it less likely you’ll have postpartum depression.

But let's not forget a key reason many new moms want to breastfeed. It's a wonderful bonding experience with your baby.

Breast milk can also be pumped which will allow for public feedings and other family members to participate in feeding.

Formula Feeding

Formula feeding is also a healthy choice for babies. If you use a formula, your baby will get the best possible alternative to breast milk. (You should not attempt to make your own formula or feed an infant cow's milk or another kind of milk.)

Many moms choose formula for a variety of reasons:

  • It's convenient. Formula-fed babies can be fed by anyone at any time.
  • It's flexible. You don't have to fit pumping into your work schedule. Instead, you can simply leave formula for your babysitter or day care center.
  • Your partner can help out with nighttime feedings and share that bonding experience with your baby.
  • Scheduling feedings may be easier. Formula isn't digested as quickly as breast milk, so formula-fed babies don't need to eat as often, especially in the first few months.
  • You don't have to worry about what you eat. Moms who breastfeed may have to avoid certain foods that their baby can't tolerate.
  • You can have a glass of wine or a cocktail once in a while. Alcohol is a no-no for women who breastfeed because they pass on tiny amounts of it to their babies.

Supplemental Feeding

Your doctor may recommend that you both breastfeed and give your baby formula, or that you add powdered or liquid fortifiers to pumped breast milk. That may be needed if:

  • Your baby was born premature or with a very low birth weight and needs extra calories and nutrients
  • Your baby has trouble latching on to breastfeed
  • Your body isn’t making enough breast milk
  • Your baby is dehydrated, has serious jaundice or low blood sugar

While your baby is getting supplemental feedings, it’s a good idea to pump your breast milk so you can start nursing as soon as baby is ready. Once their growth has caught up, you may be able to switch them exclusively to breast milk if you choose.

Whichever way you choose to feed your baby -- breast milk, formula, or a combination of both -- the most important thing is that your baby is well fed, well cared for, and loved. So ditch the mommy guilt!

Benefits of breastfeeding for baby

1 Victora CG et al . Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect . Lancet . 2016;387(10017):475-490. - Victor S.J. et al., "Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms and long-term effects". Lancet (Lancet). 2016;387(10017):475-490.

2 Bode L It’s alive: microbes and cells in human milk and their potential benefits to mother and infant . Adv Nutr . 2014;5(5):571-573. "It's Alive: Breastmilk Microbes and Cells and Their Potential Benefits for Mother and Baby." Adv Nutr. 2014;5(5):571-573.

3 Ballard O Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors . Pediatr Clin North Am . 2013;60(1):49-74. - Ballard O., Morrow A.L., "Composition of breast milk: nutrients and biologically active factors." Pediatrician Clean North Am. 2013;60(1):49-74.

4 Ladomenou F Protective effect of exclusive breastfeeding against infections during infancy: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child . 2010; 95(12):1004-1008. - Ladomenu, F. et al., "The effect of exclusive breastfeeding on infection protection in infancy: a prospective study. " Arch Dis Child. 2010;95(12):1004-1008.

5 Vennemann MM et al. Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome? Pediatrics. 2009;123(3): e 406-410. - Wennemann M.M. et al., "Does Breastfeeding Reduce the Risk of Sudden Infant Death?" Pediatrix (Pediatrics). 2009;123(3):e406-e410.

6 Hassiotou F et al. Maternal and infant infections stimulate a rapid leukocyte response in breastmilk. Clinic Transl Immunology . 2013;2(4): e 3. - Hassiot F. et al., "Infectious diseases of the mother and child stimulate a rapid leukocyte reaction in breast milk." Clean Transl Immunology. 2013;2(4):e3.

7 Harrison D et al. Breastfeeding for procedural pain in infants beyond the neonatal period. Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2016;10: CD 011248. - Harrison D. et al., "Breastfeeding for Relief of Medical Pain in the Neonatal Period." Cochrane Database of System Rev. 2014; 10: CD 11248

8 JOHNSON TJ et . Economic benefits and costs of human milk feedings: a strategy to reduce the risk of prematurity-related morbidities in very-low-birth-weight infants. Adv Nutr . 2014;5(2):207-212. — Johnson T.J. et al., Economic Benefits and Costs of Breastfeeding: A Strategy for Reducing the Risk of Preterm Complications in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants. Adv. 2014;5(2):207-212.

9 Schanler RJ et al. Randomized trial of donor human milk versus preterm formula as substitutes for mothers' own milk in the feeding of extremely premature infants. Pediatrics . 2005;116(2):400-406. - Chanler R.J. et al., "Randomized Trial of Donor Human Milk Versus Prematurity Formula as a Breast Milk Substitute in Severely Preterm Infants". Pediatrix (Pediatrics). 2005;116(2):400-406.

10 Brown A, Harries V. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight. Breastfeed Med . 2015;10(5):246-252. - Brown A., Harris W., "Night feedings and infant sleep in the first year of life and their association with feeding frequency, daytime supplementation, and infant weight." Brest Med (Breastfeeding Medicine). 2015;10(5):246-252.

11 Sánchez CL et al. The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers. Nutr Neurosci . 2009;12(1):2-8. - Sanchez S.L. et al., "Nucleotides in breast milk may help the baby fall asleep." Nutr Neurosai. 2009;12(1):2-8.

12 Dekaban AS. Changes in brain weights during the span of human life: relation of brain weights to body heights and body weights. Ann Neurol . 1978 4(4):345-356. - Dekaban A.S., "Change in the weight of the human brain throughout life: the relationship of brain weight with height and body weight." Ann Neirol. 1978 4(4):345-356.

13 Deoni SC et al. Breastfeeding and early white matter development: A cross-sectional study. Neuroimage . 2013;82:77-86. - Deoni S.S. et al., Breastfeeding and early white matter development: a cross-sectional study. Neuroimaging. 2013;82:77-86.

14 Straub N et al. Economic impact of breast-feeding-associated improvements of childhood cognitive development, based on data from the ALSPAC. Br J Nutr . 2016:1-6. - Straub N. et al., "Economic Impact of Breastfeeding-Associated Cognitive Development in the Child (According to ALSPAC )". Br J Nutr. 2016;1-6.

15 Victora CG et al. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil. Lancet Glob Health . 2015; 3(4): e 199-205. - Victor S.J. and co-authors, "Relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment and income level at age 30: a prospective cohort study in Brazil." Lancet Globe Health. 2015; 3(4):e199-205.

16 Horta BL, Victora CG. Breastfeeding and adult intelligence – Authors’ reply. Lancet Glob Health . 2015;3(9): e 522. - Horta B.L., Victora S.J., "Breastfeeding and intelligence in adulthood - Author's response". Lancet Globe Health. 2015;3(9):e522.

17 Belkind-Gerson J et al. Fatty acids and neurodevelopment. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47 Suppl 1:7-9 - Belkind-Gerson, J. et al., "Fatty acids and brain development." J Pediatrician Gastroenterol Nutr. 2008;47 Appendix 1:7-9

18 Heikkilä K et al. Breast feeding and child behavior in the Millennium Cohort Study. Arch Dis Child . 2011;96(7):635-642. - Heikkila K. et al., Breastfeeding and Child Behavior in a Millennial Cohort Study. Arch Dis Child. 2011;96(7):635-642.

19 Tharner A et al. Breastfeeding and its relation to maternal sensitivity and infant attachment. J Dev Behav Pediatr . 2012;33(5):396-404. — Tarner, A. et al., "Breastfeeding and its relation to maternal sensitivity and infant attachment." J Dev Behave Pediatrician. 2012;33(5):396-404.

20 Montgomery SM et al. Breast feeding and resilience against psychosocial stress. Arch Dis Child . 2006;91(12):990-994. - Montgomery S.M. et al., Breastfeeding and resilience to psychosocial stress. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91(12):990-994.

21 Bener A et al. Does continued breastfeeding reduce the risk for childhood leukemia and lymphomas? Minerva Pediatr. 2008;60(2):155-161. - Bener A. et al., "Does long-term breastfeeding reduce the risk of leukemia and lymphoma in a child?". Minerva Pediatrician. 2008;60(2):155-161.

22 Singhal A et al. Infant nutrition and stereoacuity at age 4-6 y. Am J Clin Nutr . 2007;85(1):152-159. - Singhal A. et al., Nutrition in infancy and stereoscopic visual acuity at 4-6 years of age. Am F Clean Nutr. 2007;85(1):152-159.

23 Peres KG et al. Effect of breastfeeding on malocclusions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr . 2015;104(467):54-61. - Perez K.G. et al., "The impact of breastfeeding on malocclusion: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Akta Pediatr. 2015;104(S467):54-61.

24 Horta BL et al. Long-term consequences of breastfeeding on cholesterol, obesity, systolic blood pressure and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Paediatr . 2015; 104(467):30-37 - Horta B.L. et al., "Long-term effects of breastfeeding and their impact on cholesterol, obesity, systolic blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis." Akta Pediatr. 2015;104(S467):30-37.

25 Lund-Blix NA et al. Infant feeding in relation to islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in genetically susceptible children: the MIDIA Study. Diabetes Care . 2015;38(2):257-263. - Lund-Blix N.A. et al., "Breastfeeding in the context of isolated autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes in genetically predisposed children: the MIDIA study ". Diabitis Care. 2015;38(2):257-263.

The benefits of breastfeeding | Medela

Altemus , M . et al . Suppression of hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress in lactating women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80, 2954–2959 (1995). - Altemus M. et al., "Suppression of responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system of a lactating woman to stress." G Clean Endocrinol Metab Metab 80, 2954–2959 (1995).

Chung, M. et al. Interventions in primary care to promote breastfeeding: An evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 149, 565–582 (21-10-2008). - Chang M. et al., "What needs to change in the health system to promote breastfeeding: an evidence review for the Prevention Service." Ann Intern Med 149, 565–582 (21-10-2008).

Diouf, J.S. et al. Influence of the mode of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking on the dimensions of primary dental arches. Int Orthod 8, 372–385 (2010). — Diouf J.S. et al., "Influence of productive and non-productive sucking regimen on the size and shape of the primary dental arch". Int Orthod 8, 372–385 (2010).

Gartner, L.M. et al. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 115, 496–506 (2005). - Gartner L.M. et al., "Breastfeeding and use of breast milk". Pediatrix (Pediatrics) 115, 496-506.

Inoue, N., Sakashita, R. & Kamegai, T. Reduction of masseter muscle activity in bottle-fed babies. Early Hum Dev 42, 185–193 (1995). - Inoue N, Sakashita R and Kamegai T, Decreased masticatory muscle activity in formula-fed infants. Early Hume Dev 42, 185–193 (1995).

Ip, S. et al. Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries. Evid Rep Technol Assess ( Full Rep ) 153, 1–186 (2007). - Ip S. et al., "Breastfeeding and its impact on maternal and child health in developed countries." Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep) 153, 1–186 (2007).

Kramer , M . S . et al . Effects of prolongation and exclusive breastfeeding on child behavior and maternal adjustment: Evidence from a large, randomized trial. Pediatrics 121, e 435– e 440 (2008). - Kramer M.S. et al., "Impact of prolonged exclusive breastfeeding on infant behavior and maternal habituation: Evidence from a large randomized trial. " Pediatrix (Pediatrics) 121, e435–e440 (2008).

Labbok, M.H. and Hendershot, G.E. Does breastfeeding protect against malocclusion? An analysis of the 1981 Child Health Supplement to the National Health Interview Survey. Am J Prev Med 3, 227–232 (1987). — Lubbock M.H. and Hendershot, J.I., "Does breastfeeding prevent malocclusion? An analysis of the 1981 National Health Survey Child Health Interview Study." Am J Prev Med 3, 227–232 (1987).

Murray, E.K., Ricketts, S. & Dellaport, J. Hospital practices that increase breastfeeding duration: results from a population-based study. Birth 34, 202–211 (2007). - Murray, I.K., Ricketts, S., and Dellaport, J., "Hospital practices that increase breastfeeding duration: Findings from a population-based study." Burt 34, 202-211 (2007).

Nissen, E. et al. Oxytocin, prolactin, milk production and their relationship with personality traits in women after vaginal delivery or Cesarean section. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 19, 49–58 (1998). - Nissen, I. et al., "Oxytocin, prolactin, milk production and their relationship to the personality traits of women undergoing vaginal delivery or caesarean section." J Psychosom Obstet Ginecol 19, 49–58 (1998).

Rosenbauer, J., Herzig, P. & Giani, G. Early infant feeding and risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus – a nationwide population-based case-control study in pre-school children. Diabetes Metab Res Rev 24, 211–222 (2008). - Rosenbauer, J., Herzig, P., and Giani, J., Feeding during the first months of life and the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus - a public case-control population-based study in preschool children. Diabitis Metab Res Rev 24, 211–222 (2008).

Schwarz, E.B. Infant feeding in America: enough to break a mother's heart? Breastfeed . Med . 8, 454–457 (2013). — Schwartz, I.B., "Feeding a Baby in America: Will It Break a Mother's Heart?" Brestfeed Med (Breastfeeding Medicine) 8, 454–457 (2013).

Sullivan, S. et al. An exclusively human milk-based diet is associated with a lower rate of necrotizing enterocolitis than a diet of human milk and bovine milk-based products. J Pediatr 156, 562–567 (2010). - Sullivan S. et al., "A diet consisting entirely of breast milk is associated with a reduced incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (as opposed to a diet consisting of breast milk and cow's milk formulas)." Zh Pediatr (Journal of Pediatrics) 156, 562–567 (2010).

Uvnas-Moberg, K. and Petersson, M. [Oxytocin, a mediator of anti-stress, well-being, social interaction, growth and healing]. Z Psychosom Med Psychother 51, 57–80 (2005). - Uvenas-Moberg K, Petersson M, [Oxytocin, mediator of anti-stress, well-being, social interaction, growth and recovery]. Z Sykosom Med Sycoter. 51, 57-80 (2005).

Vohr, B.R. et al. Persistent beneficial effects of breast milk ingested in the neonatal intensive care unit on outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants at 30 months of age. Pediatrics 120, e 953– e 959 (2007). - Thief B.R. et al., "Sustained Benefits of Breastfeeding Infants in the Intensive Care Unit on Extremely Low Weight Infants Evaluated at 30 Months of Age". Pediatrix (Pediatrics) 120, e953–e959 (2007).

WHO and UNICEF. Global strategy for infant and young child feeding (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003). - WHO and UNICEF. Global Strategy for Infant and Child Feeding. (World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003).

Widstrom, A.M. et al. Short-term effects of early suckling and touch of the nipple on maternal behavior. Early Hum Dev 21, 153–163 (1990).

Learn more