Baby acts hungry after feeding
Formula Feeding FAQs: How Much and How Often (for Parents)
Whether you plan to formula feed your baby from the start, want to supplement your breast milk with formula, or are switching from breast milk to formula, you probably have questions.
Here are answers to some common questions about formula feeding.
How Often Should I Feed My Baby?
Newborns and young babies should be fed whenever they seem hungry. This is called on-demand feeding.
After the first few days of life, most healthy formula-fed newborns feed about every 2–3 hours. As they get bigger and their tummies can hold more milk, they usually eat about every 3–4 hours. As babies get older, they’ll settle into a more predictable feeding routine and go longer stretches at night without needing a bottle.
Talk to your doctor if you have concerns about feeding your baby, especially if your baby is very small, is not gaining weight, or was born early (prematurely).
How Can I Tell When My Baby Is Hungry?
Signs that babies are hungry include:
- moving their heads from side to side
- opening their mouths
- sticking out their tongues
- placing their hands, fingers, and fists to their mouths
- puckering their lips as if to suck
- nuzzling again their mothers' breasts
- showing the rooting reflex (when a baby moves its mouth in the direction of something that's stroking or touching its cheek)
Babies should be fed before they get upset and cry. Crying is a late sign of hunger. But every time your baby cries is not because of hunger. Sometimes babies just need to be cuddled or changed. Or they could be sick, tired, too hot or too cold, in pain, or have colic.
How Much Should My Baby Drink?
In the first few weeks, give 2- to 3-ounce (60- to 90-milliliter) bottles to your newborn. Give more or less depending on your baby’s hunger cues.
Here's a general look at how much your baby may be eating at different ages:
- On average, a newborn drinks about 1.5–3 ounces (45–90 milliliters) every 2–3 hours. This amount increases as your baby grows and can take more at each feeding.
- At about 2 months, your baby may drink about 4–5 ounces (120–150 milliliters) every 3–4 hours.
- At 4 months, your baby may drink about 4–6 ounces (120-180 milliliters) at each feeding, depending on how often they eat.
- By 6 months, your baby may drink 6–8 ounces (180–230 milliliters) about 4–5 times a day.
Watch for signs that your baby is hungry or full. Respond to these cues and let your baby stop when full. A baby who is full may suck with less enthusiasm, stop, or turn away from the bottle.
Why Does My Baby Seem Hungrier Than Usual?
As babies grow, they begin to eat more at each feeding and can go longer between feedings. Still, there may be times when your little one seems hungrier than usual.
Your baby may be going through a period of rapid growth (called a growth spurt). These can happen at any time, but in the early months are common at around:
- 7–14 days old
- between 3–6 weeks
- 4 months
- 6 months
During these times and whenever your baby seems especially hungry, follow their hunger cues and continue to feed on demand, increasing the amount of formula you give as needed.
Is My Baby Eating Enough?
At times, you may wonder whether your baby is getting enough nutrients for healthy growth and development. Babies who get enough to eat seem satisfied after eating and are regularly peeing and pooping.
At your baby’s checkups, the doctor will review your baby’s growth chart, track your little one’s development, and answer any questions. Talk to your doctor if you have any concerns about your baby’s feeding and nutrition.
Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD
Date reviewed: November 2021
Newborn Constantly Hungry and Crying?
Does your baby always act hungry and unsatisfied, even though he just ate? Learn 5 reasons your newborn is constantly hungry and crying.
You knew babies ate often, but this much?
Your baby eats, but then half an hour later, will start screaming and acting hungry, furiously sucking on his hand. Offering the pacifier doesn’t help—he just spits it back out and keeps crying. He might quiet down for 10 minutes, but starts crying once again.
Feeding seems to be the only thing to get him to stop, but you’re he’ll end up with a stomach ache (causing him to cry even more). You knew you’d be up all night with him, but hearing him scream the whole time is getting frustrating.
You’re left either feeding him to keep him quiet, or listening to him cry when you don’t.
Newborn constantly hungry and crying? 5 reasons why:
We’ve all been stuck with that predicament: Feed your baby constantly, or hear him cry the entire time. More than once I’ve wondered, He can’t possibly still be hungry, as I fed my baby yet again, so soon after the last feeding.
He’d act hungry even though he just ate, never satisfied with what he had consumed. In fact, he wanted to breastfeed all the time (especially at night), always hungry for his next meal.
Now, I love me a baby who wants to eat, but for the exhausted, sleep-deprived mom, it can feel like you’re literally stuck with your baby all day.
I was either feeding him or putting him to sleep in my arms, because not doing either would incite even more tears. The short bouts of time he was awake—when he could simply be content—seemed few and far between.
But as I learned more about why babies eat so often, I also discovered several tactics I could try. We can’t expect our newborns to take three square meals a day at this point, but we can certainly observe, adjust, and meet their needs along the way.
Take a look at these five reasons your newborn is constantly hungry and crying (and what to do about each one):
1. Your baby is overtired
You’d think that when babies are tired, they’d simply fall asleep right on the spot. But I learned that they can actually feel overtired from being awake too long. Nonstop crying also adds up to even more exhaustion and sleep deprivation.
And since feeding is such a comforting experience, they want to nurse or feed to settle themselves down—even if they had just eaten.
If you suspect that your baby is overtired, help him reset his sleep patterns and catch up on rest. The constant crying is exhausting for him as well, so try to get him to settle down and sleep. For instance, you could:
- Bundle him in a swaddle and rock him to sleep
- Hold him “skin to skin,” with his skin in direct contact with yours
- Put him in the swing for a nap
- Go for a car ride or stroller walk if he tends to sleep that way
Free download: Do you struggle with getting your newborn to sleep? His awake time just might be affecting how well he sleeps or not. Join my newsletter and get my handout—at no cost to you—and discover one mistake you may be making with his awake time.
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2. Your baby isn’t actually eating
Does your baby still act like he’s hungry, even though you had just fed him 30 minutes ago? Does he begin to root around, or act fussy until his next meal?
But he just ate! you think to yourself.
Or… did he?
If your newborn is constantly hungry and crying for more, it might be because he’s not actually eating while he nurses.
Now, this might not apply so much if he’s taking the bottle, especially when you can measure how many ounces he consumed. But if he happens to breastfeed, you can’t exactly see how much he drank.
Either way, try to keep him awake while he feeds, bottle or breastfed. This ensures that he’s drinking milk and not just sucking for comfort. You could…
- Switch positions often
- Tickle him
- Unbutton or remove some clothes
- Burp him during feedings
- Talk to him
How can you tell if he’s actually drinking (instead of just sucking)? Look at his throat. If he were truly swallowing, his throat would also move as the milk makes it way down. And listen for a swallowing sound, another telltale sign that he’s drinking.
Learn how to tell if baby is hungry or wants comfort.
3. Your baby has gas
Another reason causing your baby’s discomfort—and therefore the need to comfort feed—is gas. Babies have immature digestive systems, causing them to trap gas or struggle with pushing food through their bodies.
Even though he may not be hungry, your baby feels comfort with feeding (even when he’s not actually eating).
Check with your pediatrician to rule out any significant causes of gas. If you suspect that normal gas is the culprit of his constant hunger and cries, help him relieve these discomforts. You can:
- Put a warm washcloth on his tummy for a few minutes
- Massage his belly gently
- Give him gas drops
- Burp him often
- Feed him after waking up from naps, not before
Learn 14 baby burping tricks that actually work.
4. Your baby is overstimulated
At many family parties I’ve attended, it wasn’t unusual to see a baby being passed around from one person to the next. And sometimes, the baby was fussy and crying, overwhelmed with all the new people and sights he was seeing.
We forget how easily stimulated babies can get, and not just in rowdy family parties. You might have run an errand in a loud, new place, or even played with him for long stretches of time.
To keep him from being overstimulated, watch his sleep cues or even the clock so you can put him down for a nap when he’s sleepy. You might want to go in a dark room at the first sign of a yawn, or turn white noise on to muffle sudden sounds from outside.
Keep things subdued, from what he sees and hears to where you go to how much you engage with him.
5. Your baby is going through a growth spurt
I would dart dagger eyes at anyone who suggested that my baby was hungry. As the only one who could feed him, I resented the idea of constantly nursing him every time he cried.
Later, when I had my twins, I learned that feeding on demand is part of the game, and more importantly, a temporary one. Just because you’re cluster feeding your baby, that doesn’t mean it’ll always be like that.
Follow his lead, especially if you’ve confirmed that he’s actually eating during those feedings. They might seem excessive, but this could be his way to increase your milk supply to meet his growing needs.
Because, at the end of the day, the reason he could be eating so often is simply because he’s hungry.
What to do when your baby is feeding every hour (and not sleeping).
It’s never easy dealing with a newborn constantly hungry and crying, especially when you’re not exactly sure why. And with feeding such a comforting experience, hunger isn’t always the most obvious reason. Hopefully you’ve now seen a few common causes as well as possible solutions to help.
To start, your baby could be overtired, turning to feedings as a way to comfort himself to sleep. Maybe he’s not actually eating, which explains why he’s still hungry even though it seems like he had just eaten. He could also have gas, contributing to even more discomfort as he tries to sleep.
He might be overstimulated from his surroundings, making it harder for him to tune things out and rest. And finally, he could simply be going through a growth spurt, which explains the constant feedings.
No matter the reason, rest assured friend that this isn’t permanent. You’re not always going to be glued to your baby with constant feedings. Yes, he eats often, but soon he’ll fall into a more predictable pattern of eating—and hopefully in stretches longer than 30 minutes.
Get more tips:
- Is Your Baby Nursing for an Hour and Still Hungry?
- Newborn Life: Expectation vs Reality
- 6 Ways to Handle Your Newborn Constantly Feeding
- 12 Things to Do When Your Newborn Fights Sleep
- 4 Newborn Sleep Cues That’ll Help Baby Sleep Longer
Don’t forget: Join my newsletter and get One Mistake You’re Making with Your Baby’s Awake Time—at no cost to you:
How to determine if the baby has enough milk?
A child who is breastfed should be applied to the breast at his request during the day, and at least 3 times at night, on average 10-12 times a day. Feeding on demand - this means that at the first sign of restlessness of the baby, it must be applied to the chest. In order for the child to be satiated, it must be correctly attached to the breast, it must suck rhythmically for about 5-20 minutes, swallowing movements should be heard during sucking (swallowing milk), a well-fed child can fall asleep under the breast, after feeding the breast should become soft. Signs of a hungry baby: opens her mouth wide, turns her head in different directions (looking for a nipple), whimpers, sucks her fist. nine0003
A child suckles at the breast not only to quench thirst or hunger, but also to calm down, comfort, it is easier to fall asleep, recover, and get gassies out. Newborns are not able to regulate their bowels, therefore, in order to push out gassies, they need a new portion of milk. Therefore, the younger the children, the more often they need to be applied to the chest. If the child is not capricious, gains weight well, neuropsychic development corresponds to age, this indicates that the body develops normally, it has enough food and enough milk, but this only applies to children under 6 months old. A child who is breastfed (up to 6 months) must gain weight at least 500 g per month, the upper limit of the increase for each child is individual. But if the process of eruption of milk teeth began earlier, then weight gain is possible and less than 500 g.
What should I do to get enough milk?
- Milk production occurs under the influence of two hormones, prolactin and oxytocin, which are produced in response to the suckling of the breast of a woman who has given birth. Therefore, in order to stimulate the production of milk, frequent stimulation of these two hormones is necessary, this implies frequent attachment of the baby to the breast (necessarily night attachments), proper breastfeeding. nine0013 The exclusion of stress, tension, increased mental and physical tension, fatigue, these factors contribute to a decrease in the production of oxytocin and prolactin, and if they are not enough, the muscle cells will not be able to form and secrete milk, as a result of which the child will not be able to get the amount of milk he needs. Thus, all nursing mothers need: calmness, rest, calm environment, they should try to get a good night's sleep (daytime sleep is required, next to the child). nine0014
- Constant contact with the child (affects the production of hormones).
- A warm shower promotes better milk flow.
- Special lactogenic (better milk excretion) teas (sold in pharmacies) for nursing mothers.
- Lactic preparations, for example: Apilak.
- Walnut with honey also has a lactogenic effect, use honey with caution for mothers with children suffering from allergies. nine0014
- A nursing mother must follow a diet: eat on time, high-calorie food and rich in vitamins (it doesn’t matter if your weight changes or not), drink more fluids, forget about any diets.
- Under no circumstances should you smoke or drink alcohol.
- In case of insufficient milk production, it is urgent to seek help from a lactation consultant.
Breastfeeding in the first month: what to expect
Not sure how to establish lactation and increase milk production? If you need help, support, or just want to know what to expect, read our first month breastfeeding advice
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The first weeks of breastfeeding are a very stressful period. If at times you feel like you can't handle it, know that you are not alone. Feeding your baby all day long is completely natural and helps produce breast milk, but can be quite tiring at times. Be patient, think about yourself and remember: after the first month, when milk production stabilizes, it will become easier. nine0003
How often should a baby be breastfed?
Babies are born with a small stomach that grows rapidly with increasing milk production: in the first week it is no larger than an apricot, and after two weeks it is already the size of a large chicken egg. 1.2 Let the child eat as much as he wants and when he wants. This will help him quickly regain the weight lost after birth and grow and develop further.
“Be prepared to feed every two to three hours throughout the day. At night, the intervals between feedings can be longer: three to four or even five hours, says Cathy Garbin, a recognized international expert on breastfeeding. Some eat quickly and are satiated in 15 minutes, while others take an entire hour to feed. Do not compare your breastfeeding regimen with that of other mothers - it is very likely that there will be nothing in common between them. nine0003
At each feed, give your baby a full meal from one breast and then offer a second one, but don't worry if the baby doesn't take it. When the baby is full, he lets go of his chest and at the same time looks relaxed and satisfied - so much so that he can immediately fall asleep. The next time you feed, start on the other breast. You can monitor the order of the mammary glands during feeding using a special application.
Why does the child always ask for a breast?
The first month is usually the hardest time to breastfeed. But do not think that because the baby is constantly hungry and asks for a breast almost every 45 minutes, then you do not have enough milk. nine0003
In the first month, the baby needs to eat frequently to start and stimulate the mother's milk production. It lays the foundation for a stable milk supply in the future. 3
In addition, we must not forget that the child needs almost constant contact with the mother. The bright light and noise of the surrounding world at first frighten the baby, and only by clinging to his mother, he can calm down.
Sarah, mother of three from the UK, confirms: “Crying is not always a sign of hunger. Sometimes my kids just wanted me to be around and begged for breasts to calm them down. Use a sling. Place the cradle next to the bed. Don't look at the clock. Take advantage of every opportunity to relax. Forget about cleaning. Let those around you take care of you. And not three days, but six weeks at least! Hug your baby, enjoy the comfort - and trust your body." nine0003
Do I need to feed my baby on a schedule?
Your baby is still too young for a strict daily routine, so
forget about breastfeeding schedules and focus on his needs.
“Volumes have been written about how to feed a baby on a schedule, but babies don't read or understand books,” Cathy says. - All children are different. Some people can eat on a schedule, but most can't. Most often, over time, the child develops his own schedule.
Some mothers report that their babies are fine with scheduled feedings, but they are probably just the few babies who would eat every four hours anyway. Adults rarely eat and drink the same foods at the same time of day - so why do we expect this from toddlers?
Offer your baby the breast at the first sign of hunger. Crying is already the last stage, so be attentive to early signs: the baby licks his lips, opens his mouth, sucks his fist, turns his head with his mouth open - looking for the breast. nine0047 4
What is a “milk flush”?
At the beginning of each feed, a hungry baby actively suckles the nipple,
thereby stimulating the milk flow reflex - the movement of milk through the milk ducts. 5
“Nipple stimulation triggers the release of the hormone oxytocin,” explains Cathy. “Oxytocin is distributed throughout the body and causes the muscles around the milk glands to contract and the milk ducts to dilate. This stimulates the flow of milk. nine0003
If the flushing reflex fails, milk will not come out. This is a hormonal response, and under stress it may not work at all or work poorly. Therefore, it is so important that you feel comfortable and calm when feeding.
“Studies show that each mother has a different rhythm of hot flashes during one feed,” Kathy continues, “Oxytocin is a short-acting hormone, it breaks down in just 30-40 seconds after formation. Milk begins to flow, the baby eats, the effect of oxytocin ends, but then a new rush of milk occurs, the baby continues to suckle the breast, and this process is repeated cyclically. That is why, during feeding, the child periodically stops and rests - this is how nature intended. nine0003
The flow of milk may be accompanied by a strong sensation of movement or tingling in the chest, although 21% of mothers, according to surveys, do not feel anything at all. 5 Cathy explains: “Many women only feel the first rush of milk. If you do not feel hot flashes, do not worry: since the child eats normally, most likely, you simply do not understand that they are.
How can you tell if your baby is getting enough milk?
Since it is impossible to track how much milk a baby eats while breastfeeding, mothers sometimes worry that the baby is malnourished. Trust your child and your body. nine0003
After a rush of milk, the baby usually begins to suckle more slowly. Some mothers clearly hear how the baby swallows, others do not notice it. But one way or another, the child himself will show when he is full - just watch carefully. Many babies make two or three approaches to the breast at one feeding. 6
“When a child has had enough, it is noticeable almost immediately: a kind of “milk intoxication” sets in. The baby is relaxed and makes it clear with his whole body that he is completely full, says Katie, “Diapers are another great way to assess whether the baby is getting enough milk. During this period, a breastfed baby should have at least five wet diapers a day and at least two portions of soft yellow stool, and often more.” nine0003
From one month until weaning at six months of age, a baby's stool (if exclusively breastfed) should look the same every day: yellow, grainy, loose, and watery.
When is the child's birth weight restored?
Most newborns lose weight in the first few days of life. This is normal and should not be cause for concern. As a rule, weight is reduced by 5-7%, although some may lose up to 10%. One way or another, by 10–14 days, almost all newborns regain their birth weight. In the first three to four months, the minimum expected weight gain is an average of 150 grams per week. But one week the child may gain weight faster, and the next slower, so it is necessary that the attending physician monitor the health and growth of the baby constantly. nine0047 7.8
At the slightest doubt or signs of dehydration, such as
dark urine, no stool for more than 24 hours, retraction of the fontanel (soft spot on the head), yellowing of the skin, drowsiness, lethargy, lack of appetite (ability to four to six hours without feeding), you should immediately consult a doctor. 7
What is "cluster feeding"?
When a baby asks for a breast very often for several hours, this is called cluster feeding. nine0047 6 The peak often occurs in the evening between 18:00 and 22:00, when many babies are especially restless and need close contact with their mother. Most often, mothers complain about this in the period from two to nine weeks after childbirth. This is perfectly normal and common behavior as long as the baby is otherwise healthy, eating well, gaining weight normally, and appears content throughout the day. 9
Cluster feeding can be caused by a sharp jump in the development of the body - during this period the baby especially needs love, comfort and a sense of security. The growing brain of a child is so excited that it can be difficult for him to turn off, or it just scares the baby. nine0047 9 If a child is overworked, it is often difficult for him or her to calm down on his own and the help of adults is needed. And breastfeeding is the best way to calm the baby, because breast milk is not only food, but also pain reliever and a source of happiness hormones. 10
“Nobody told me about cluster feeding, so for the first 10 days I just went crazy with worry - I was sure that my milk was not enough for the baby,” recalls Camilla, a mother from Australia, “It was a very difficult period . I was advised to pump and supplement until I finally contacted the Australian Breastfeeding Association. There they explained to me what was happening: it turned out that it was not about milk at all. nine0003
Remember, this is temporary. Try to prepare dinner for yourself in the afternoon, when the baby is fast asleep, so that in the evening, when he begins to often breastfeed, you have the opportunity to quickly warm up the food and have a snack. If you are not alone, arrange to carry and rock the baby in turns so that you have the opportunity to rest. If you have no one to turn to for help and you feel that your strength is leaving you, put the baby in the crib and rest for a few minutes, and then pick it up again. nine0003
Ask your partner, family and friends to help you with household chores, cooking and caring for older children if you have any. If possible, hire an au pair. Get as much rest as possible, eat well and drink plenty of water.
“My daughter slept a lot during the day, but from 23:00 to 5:00 the cluster feeding period began, which was very tiring,” recalls Jenal, a mother from the USA, “My husband tried his best to make life easier for me - washed, cleaned, cooked, changed diapers, let me sleep at every opportunity and never tired of assuring me that we were doing well. nine0003
If you are concerned about the frequency of breastfeeding, it is worth contacting a specialist. “Check with a lactation consultant or doctor to see if this is indicative of any problems,” recommends Cathy. “Resist the temptation to supplement your baby with formula (unless recommended by your doctor) until you find the cause. It may not be a matter of limited milk production at all - it may be that the child is inefficiently sucking it.
When will breastfeeding become easier? nine0045
This early stage is very special and does not last long. Although sometimes it seems that there will be no end to it, rest assured: it will get easier soon! By the end of the first month, breast milk production will stabilize, and the baby will become stronger and learn to suckle better. 2.3 Any problems with latch on will most likely be resolved by this time, and the body will be able to produce milk more efficiently, so inflammation and leakage of milk will begin to subside.
“The first four to six weeks are the hardest, but then things start to get better,” Cathy assures. It just needs to be experienced!” nine0003
The longer breastfeeding continues, the more benefits it brings, from saving on formula and improving sleep quality 11-13 to boosting your baby's immune system 14 and reducing your risk of certain cancers. 15
“When you feel like you're on your limit, try to go from feed to feed and day to day,” advises Hannah, a UK mom. “I was sure I wouldn’t make it to eight weeks. And now I have been breastfeeding for almost 17 weeks, and I dare say it is very easy.” nine0003
Read the resource Breastfeeding Beyond the First Month: What to Expect
1 Naveed M et al. An autopsy study of relationship between perinatal stomach capacity and birth weight. Indian J Gastroenterol .1992;11(4):156-158. - Navid M. et al., Association between prenatal gastric volume and birth weight. Autopsy. Indian J Gastroenterol. 1992;11(4):156-158.
2 Neville MC et al. Studies in human lactation: milk volumes in lactating women during the onset of lactation and full lactation . Am J Clinl Nutr . 1988;48(6):1375-1386. at the beginning and at the peak of lactation." Am F Clean Nutr. 1988;48(6):1375-1386.
3 Kent JC et al. Principles for maintaining or increasing breast milk production. 2012;41(1):114-121. - Kent J.S. et al., "Principles for Maintaining and Increasing Milk Production". J Obstet Ginecol Neoneutal Nurs. 2012;41(1):114-121. nine0163
4 Australian Breastfeeding Feeding cues ; 2017 Sep [ cited 2018 Feb ]. - Australian Breastfeeding Association [Internet], Feed Ready Signals; September 2017 [cited February 2018]
5 Kent JC et al. Response of breasts to different stimulation patterns of an electric breast pump. J Human Lact . 2003;19(2):179-186. - Kent J.S. et al., Breast Response to Different Types of Electric Breast Pump Stimulation. J Human Lact (Journal of the International Association of Lactation Consultants). 2003;19(2):179-186.
6) Kent JC et al . Volume and frequency of breastfeedings and fat content of breast milk throughout the day. Pediatrics. 2006;117(3): e 387-395. - Kent J.S. et al., "Amount and frequency of breastfeeding and fat content of breast milk during the day." Pediatrix (Pediatrics). 2006;117(3):e387-95.
7 Lawrence RA, Lawrence RM. Breastfeeding: A guide for the medical profession. 7th ed. Maryland Heights MO, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010. 1128 p . - Lawrence R.A., Lawrence R.M., "Breastfeeding: A guide for healthcare professionals." Seventh edition. Publisher Maryland Heights , Missouri, USA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010. P. 1128.
8 World Health Organization. [Internet]. Child growth standards; 2018 [cited 2018 Feb] - World Health Organization. [Internet]. Child Growth Standards 2018 [cited February 2018]. nine0163
9 Australian Breastfeeding Association . [ Internet ]. Cluster feeding and fussing babies ; Dec 2017 [ cited 2018 Feb ] - Australian Breastfeeding Association [Internet], Cluster Feeding and Screaming Babies; December 2017 [cited February 2018]. nine0163
10 Moberg KU, Prime DK. Oxytocin effects in mothers and infants during breastfeeding. Infant . 2013;9(6):201-206.- Moberg K, Prime DK, "Oxytocin effects on mother and child during breastfeeding". Infant. 2013;9(6):201-206.
11 U.S. Department of Health & Human Services [Internet]. Surgeon General Breastfeeding factsheet; 2011 Jan 20 [cited 2017 Feb] - Department of Health and Human Services [Internet], "Breastfeeding Facts from the Chief Medical Officer", Jan 20, 2011 [cited Feb 2017]
12 Kendall-Tackett K et al. The effect of feeding method on sleep duration, maternal well-being, and postpartum depression. clinical lactation. 2011;1;2(2):22-26. - Kendall-Tuckett, K. et al., "Influence of feeding pattern on sleep duration, maternal well-being and the development of postpartum depression." Clinical Lactation. 2011;2(2):22-26.
13 Brown A, Harries V. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: Association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight. Breast Med . 2015;10(5):246-252. - Brown A., Harris W., "Night feedings and infant sleep in the first year of life and their association with feeding frequency, daytime supplementation, and infant weight." Brest Med (Breastfeeding Medicine). 2015;10(5):246-252.
14 Hassiotou F et al. Maternal and infant infections stimulate a rapid leukocyte response in breastmilk.