Food chart for 1year old baby
Sample Menu for a 1-Year-Old Child
Ages & Stages
Babies and young toddlers should get about half of their calories from fat. Healthy fats are very important for normal growth and development at this stage of their development.
All fats are not created equal, though. Healthy fats like those found in avocado, olive oil, fish, nut butters, and dairy are good for your child (and you). Unhealthy fats such as those found in fried foods, fast foods and many packaged foods are not healthy at any age. If you keep your child's daily caloric intake at about 1,000 calories, you needn't worry about overfeeding and risk of weight gain
Here is a sample menu for a one-year-old child who weighs about 21 pounds (9.5 kg):
1 cup = 8 ounces = 240 ml
1 ounce = 2 tablespoons = 30 ml
½ ounce = 1 tablespoon = 15 ml = 3 teaspoons
1 teaspoon = ¹⁄³ tablespoon = 5 ml
½ cup iron-fortified breakfast cereal or 1 cooked egg
½ cup whole or 2% milk
½ banana, sliced
2 to 3 large sliced strawberries
1 slice toast or whole-wheat muffin with 1–2 tablespoons cream cheese or peanut butter, or ½ cup yogurt with cut-up fruit
Water or ½ cup whole or 2% milk
½ sandwich: sliced turkey or chicken, tuna, egg salad or peanut butter
½ cup cooked green vegetables
½ cup whole or 2% milk
1 to 2 ounces cubed or string cheese, or
2 to 3 tablespoons fruit or berries
Water or ½ cup whole or 2% milk
2 to 3 ounces cooked meat, ground or diced
½ cup cooked yellow or orange vegetables
½ cup whole-grain pasta or potato
½ cup whole or 2% milk
Talk with your child's pediatrician if you have any questions or concerns about your baby's diet.
- Discontinuing the Bottle
- Unsafe Foods for Toddlers
- Selecting Snacks for Toddlers
- Water & Juice
- Last Updated
- Caring for Your Baby and Young Child: Birth to Age 5 7th Edition (Copyright © 2019 American Academy of Pediatrics)
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Feeding & Nutrition Tips: Your 2-Year-Old
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Ages & Stages
Ages & Stages
With your two-year-old's blossoming language and social skills, they're ready to become an active mealtime participant. They should no longer be drinking from a bottle, and can eat the same food as the rest of the family. Their diet should now include three healthy meals a day, plus one or two snacks.
Here are some tips to help your little one develop healthy, safe eating habits and get the nutrition their growing bodies need.
Mealtime tips for toddlers
Try not to fixate on amounts of food they are eating.
Avoid making mealtimes a battle.
Pay attention to adopting healthy eating habits—including sitting as a family at mealtime.
Focus on making healthy food choices as a family.
Unsafe foods for toddlers: choking risks
At two years old, your child should be able to use a spoon, drink from a cup with just one hand, and feed themselves a wide variety of finger foods. However, they are still learning to chew and swallow efficiently and may gulp food down when in a hurry to get on with playing. For that reason, the risk of choking at this age is high.
Avoid these foods, which could be swallowed whole and block the windpipe:
Hot dogs (unless cut in quarters lengthwise before being sliced)
Chunks of peanut butter (Peanut butter may be spread thinly on bread or a cracker, but never give chunks of peanut butter to a toddler.)
Raw cherries with pits
Round, hard candies—including jelly beans
Raw carrots, celery, green beans
Seeds—such as processed pumpkin or sunflower seeds
Whole grapes, cherry tomatoes (cut them in quarters)
Large chunks of any food such as meat, potatoes, or raw vegetables and fruits
The best foods for toddlers include:
Protein foods like meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, nuts, seeds and soy
Dairy such as milk, yogurt, cheese or calcium-fortified soymilk
Fruits and vegetables
Grains such as whole wheat bread and oatmeal
It is normal for toddlers to choose from a limited number of foods, reject foods entirely, and then change their preferences over time. Never force your child to eat something they do not want to eat. The best approach is to let your child to choose from 2 to 3 healthy options, and continue to offer new foods as their tastes change.
Offering a variety of foods and leaving the choices up to your child will eventually allow them to eat a balanced diet on their own. Toddlers also like to feed themselves. So, whenever possible, offer your child finger foods instead of cooked ones that require a fork or spoon to eat.
Supplements for some children
Vitamin supplements are rarely necessary for toddlers who eat a varied diet, with a few exceptions.
Vitamin D. Infants under 12 months of age require 400 International Units (IU) of vitamin D per day and older children and adolescents require 600 IU per day. This amount of vitamin D can prevent rickets—a condition characterized by the softening and weakening of bones. If your child is not regularly exposed to sunlight or is consuming enough vitamin D in their diet, talk to your pediatrician about a vitamin D supplement. See Vitamin D for Babies, Children & Adolescents for more information and a list of vitamin D-enriched foods.
Iron. Supplemental iron may be needed if your child eats very little meat, iron-fortified cereal, or vegetables rich in iron. Large quantities of milk (more than 32 ounces [960 mL] per day) also may interfere with the proper absorption of iron, increasing the risk of iron deficiency anemia.
Calcium. Your child should drink 16 ounces (480 mL) of low-fat or nonfat milk each day. This will provide most of the calcium they need for bone growth and still not interfere with their appetite for other foods—particularly those that provide iron.
Note: Children stay on whole milk until they are two years of age—unless there is a reason to switch a baby to low-fat milk sooner. Whole milk contains approximately 4% milk fat. It may help to gradually switch your child from whole milk to a lower-fat milk. Therefore, many pediatricians recommend that children get reduced fat (2%) milk for a few weeks before switching them to low fat (1%) or no fat (skim) milk.
- Sample Menu for a Two-Year-Old
- Feeding & Nutrition Tips: Your 3-Year-Old
- Selecting Snacks for Toddlers
- I Need a Treat: How to Tame Your Child's Sweet Tooth
- Diagnosis and Prevention of Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Infants and Young Children (0-3 Years of Age) (AAP Clinical Report)
- Last Updated
- American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Obesity (Copyright © 2022)
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Complementary foods by months, what foods to introduce into complementary foods for a child from 6 months old
≈ 6 min read time
- When to introduce complementary foods to a child?
- Why is complementary foods included in a child's diet?
- The sequence of introduction of complementary foods
- Complementary foods at 4-5 months
- Complementary foods at 6 months
- Complementary foods at 7 months
- Complementary foods at 8 months
- Complementary foods from 9 months to 1 year
- Complementary feeding table by months for breastfeeding and artificial feeding
Not only a lack of nutrients, but also their overabundance can interfere with the proper development of the baby. Pediatric nutrition studies how specific micronutrients affect the functioning of organs and systems, cells and metabolism. For example, in accordance with new scientific data, complementary foods have been adjusted by months in the past few years.
It is important that it should be administered against the background of ongoing breastfeeding, if possible. According to WHO experts, breast milk remains the best food for the baby in terms of composition, in many ways it serves as “health programming” for many years. Therefore, it is ideal to breastfeed for as long as possible.
Complementary feeding of children up to a year is food, in addition to mother's milk or infant formula, which is additionally introduced into the baby's diet in the first year of his life.
Children develop individually, so pediatricians do not specify a specific “age of start”. But there is a time interval, the so-called. "critical window". This is not just the most favorable, but an extremely important period for "acquaintance" with new products and textures.
Introduction of complementary foods The European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition ESPGHAN advises to start between 17 and 26 weeks of a baby's life. Approximately these terms are also called by domestic experts: from 4 to 6 months.
Before 4 months, introduce complementary foods early:
- the mucosa of the small intestine is too permeable;
- digestive enzymes are not ripe;
- the level of immunity is still insufficient, so the risk of an undesirable reaction is increased.
After 6 months, introducing the first complementary foods is somewhat late:
- possible risk of nutritional deficiencies;
- it will be more difficult to develop food tolerance; ability to tolerate products well;
- there may be a delay in mastering the chewing skill, and it is also needed in order for the speech apparatus to develop correctly;
- in order for food to cover the deficiency of essential substances, new products will have to be introduced faster. This will create an unnecessary burden on the body.
The optimal time to start introducing complementary foods is 5 months, but you need to focus on the baby. The fact that he is ready to try something other than mother's milk or infant formula can be understood by the following signs:
- the child holds his head, can be fixed in a sitting position;
- teething begins;
- subsides so-called. spoon ejection reflex - an evolutionary mechanism that prevented an infant from accidentally swallowing an object;
- baby looks at new food with curiosity;
- a child can reach his mouth with his hand, and, taking a pacifier or a toy in his mouth, makes chewing, champing movements.
By 4-5 months, the baby already weighs twice as much as at birth, and moves much more actively. He needs more energy and nutrients. Per 1 kg of body weight, this need for a baby in the first year of life is higher than in all subsequent periods.
But her mother's milk can no longer provide. Not only because the growing child already lacks the vitamins and microelements received - iron, calcium, zinc, phosphorus, etc. In the women's milk itself, there is gradually less protein, amino acids, fatty acids. Children who feed exclusively on their mother's milk, from six months already are at risk of the so-called. iron deficiency conditions.
From how adequately the diet of a child up to a year is made, his health depends “not only during this period of time, but throughout his life,” says the National Program for Optimizing Feeding. This is the main document developed by leading domestic experts who are guided, incl. including WHO experts.
Monthly feeding schedule
Taking into account the individual characteristics of the baby, the doctor may recommend offering some products a little earlier - or, conversely, a little later than indicated in the scheme. But most products are quite strictly "tied" to a certain age - more precisely, to the degree of maturity of the body and the baby's readiness to get acquainted with them. And readiness in each specific age is different.
Complementary feeding rules - universal:
- we offer a new product from 1/2 teaspoon, gradually increase over 5 days to a week to the volume recommended at a certain age;
- we monitor tolerance - for this we introduce a dish in the 1st half of the day;
- porridge is introduced first from 1 type of cereal, dairy-free, gluten-free, diluted with breast milk or infant formula. When different types of such cereals have already been “tested” separately, cereals from two types of gluten-free cereals can be introduced. In the same way, we “acquaint” the baby with cereals from gluten cereals. Porridges remain dairy-free, diluted with breast milk or infant formula;
- we offer mashed potatoes to start with single-component ones - from one type of vegetable. Then - from another, and after that you can switch to mashed potatoes from several familiar types;
- introduce only one new product at a time;
- do not sweeten dishes and do not add salt;
- industrial prepared meals are preferred, as they have passed the security check;
- spoon-feeding before breastfeeding/formula feeding;
- an unfamiliar product should not be offered for acute infection; wait at least 3 days before and after vaccination;
- at 9–10 months, gradually replace the puree-like texture with a finely ground one.
Five months of age is the best time to start weaning. 4 months is usually too early, and only a doctor, taking into account certain indications, can recommend this.
We start with mashed vegetables or porridge. Why exactly - depends on the health of the baby, his nutritional status, the development of the digestive system. If the body weight is lower than expected, the stool is quickened - it makes sense to choose ready-made dairy-free cereals with a complex of micronutrients as the first dish. If the mass is excessive, frequent constipation - vegetable puree is suitable.
Products should be as neutral as possible, easily digestible.
Rules for introducing vegetables into the diet
The first puree should be from only one type of vegetable with tender fiber. Zucchini, cauliflower or broccoli will do. After making sure that the child tolerates it well and eats the dish with appetite, after a week feel free to introduce the second type of vegetable. You can separately give mashed potatoes from the second vegetable at the end of feeding familiar mashed potatoes. You can also immediately add a little bit of puree from an unfamiliar vegetable to an already familiar vegetable.
Whichever method you choose, in any case, the second puree is also introduced gradually over 5-7 days. At the same time, every day it is necessary to increase the share of the new puree in the diet and proportionally reduce the amount of the already familiar one. For example, gradually add broccoli puree to mashed potatoes from an already familiar zucchini, or vice versa.
By the same principle, over time, you need to introduce other vegetables: cauliflower, carrots, pumpkin.
When the volume of vegetable puree reaches 100 g, flavor it with a drop of vegetable oil.
Rules for the introduction of cereals
You need to start with gluten-free dairy-free porridge from only one type of cereal: rice, buckwheat or corn. Be sure to cook porridge with breast milk or infant formula. Cow's milk cannot be used for making porridge up to a year, and porridge "on the water" has a low nutritional value - the child will not receive important nutrients that he usually receives from breast milk or formula, will not eat up and quickly get hungry.
Gradually, an unfamiliar one is mixed with an already familiar type of cereal, turning porridge into a multicomponent product.
It is advisable to choose an industrially prepared dish: it has added micronutrients that are key for growth and development. For example, much-needed iron.
By six months, the baby already eats several types of vegetables and cereals. We continue to expand their “palette” and gradually introduce new products. For example, we give dairy-free gluten-containing porridge - for example, oatmeal. It must also be diluted only with breast milk / infant formula. From six months we begin to "get used" to mashed meat.
Rules for introducing meat
Meat is a source of heme iron. Unlike non-heme from plant foods, it is better absorbed. You need to introduce meat from dietary species: turkeys or a rabbit. Then gradually add other types of meat.
Beef is the richest in iron: if women's milk contains 0.04 mg of iron per 100 g, then beef contains about 3 mg per 100 g. But if the baby does not tolerate beef, we replace it with lean pork, lamb.
Important: finished products differ in the amount of raw meat. In canned meat it is 40-65%, in meat and vegetable - 10-20%, and in plant-based canned food with meat - less than 10%. When compiling a menu for a baby, you need to compare these volumes with those recommended in the table for months. In addition, mom must definitely check that there is no salt in the composition.
We continue to vary the types of vegetables, cereals and meat puree. Already confidently trying fruit puree. In addition, there is another fundamentally new "serious" product - egg yolk.
Rules for introducing fruit into the diet
Fruit is one of those foods that experts' opinion has changed in recent years. Previously, fruits were introduced at the earliest stages, but now experts recommend giving them to the baby only after meat. The fact is that love for the sweet taste, unlike other tastes, is innate in us. Fruit can become such a clear favorite that it can be difficult to introduce your baby to savory foods.
You need to start with puree from non-exotic fruits for Russia: apples or pears. Gradually add puree from other fruits to them.
Rules for the introduction of egg yolk
The egg belongs to highly allergenic products, so it is administered when the body is already sufficiently prepared. However, egg intolerance is still observed in 2% of children.
You need to feed the baby only with boiled yolk: most of the vitamins and minerals are concentrated in it, but allergen proteins are found mainly in the protein.
We begin to give the yolk literally from a crumb, mixing it into morning porridge and gradually increasing the volume of the yolk to a quarter.
An eight-month-old baby is mastering the remaining new staple foods. Do not forget to gradually increase the portion size and variety of dishes in accordance with age recommendations. A growing baby also has an increased appetite, so you need a little more porridge, meat, and other products. However, it is important not to "get carried away" and not overfeed. For example, a portion of the yolk can be increased to half.
Children's non-adapted sour-milk dishes are introduced from new products - kefir, yogurt, biolact. etc. If cottage cheese has not been introduced before, then now is the time for it. It is imperative to start with the unsweetened tastes of fermented milk products, otherwise it will be difficult for the baby to “convince” to try, for example, unsweetened cottage cheese. And at this age, the child already needs to “get acquainted” with another unsweetened and most important dish - fish.
Only after 8 months you can give the baby fruit juice - and then, you need to offer it quite a bit and at the end of feeding, after the main course (for example, meat).
Rules for introducing fish
Fish puree is introduced as an alternative to meat, once or twice a week. If we usually give meat puree in the middle of the day along with vegetable puree, now we simply offer fish instead of meat. Remember that this product can cause allergies, so we carefully monitor the reaction of the body.
The best for a child is mashed ocean white fish: hake, sea bass, cod. From red varieties it is better to choose salmon, from river varieties - pike perch.
By 9-10 months, the baby got acquainted with all the main products. The diet continues to expand, now due to a different texture of the product. From a puree, we gradually move on to a finely ground texture, and then coarsely ground. For example, meatballs can be a meat dish.
Complementary feeding of an infant for months should be accompanied by supplementary feeding - breast milk or mixtures. According to the recommendations of the ESPGHAN Nutrition Committee, when to introduce complementary foods and in what sequence does not depend on the type of feeding. Therefore, feeding a child by months with breastfeeding is exactly the same as feeding by months with artificial feeding.
There is one difference, but it does not apply to the complementary foods themselves. Women's milk itself "adjusts" to changes in the body of the baby, and milk formulas are adapted in the same way by manufacturers. Therefore, the mother must ensure that the mixture is appropriate for the current age of the child.
Lure. Table by month up to a year (in g/ml)
Meat puree / boiled meat
Fruit puree (not as first food)
Kefir, other non-adapted dairy drinks for children
Wheat bread, crackers
Vegetable oil (for vegetables)
Butter (for porridge)
Lure menu by months can be found on the website of the Union of Pediatricians of Russia.
Each product has its own deadline, but in some cases there are exceptions. For example, it is better to introduce fruit puree after meat, i. from six months, but you can add quite a bit to the porridge earlier - if the baby has a poor appetite or constipation. Cottage cheese should be introduced from 8 months, but in some cases, on the advice of a pediatrician, from six months.
Your doctor can help you adjust the chart to your baby's needs.
- The program for optimizing the feeding of children in the first year of life in the Russian Federation. Moscow, 2019. https://minzdrav.midural.ru/uploads/document/4908/optimizatsii-vskarmlivaniya-detej-pervogo-goda-zhizni.pdf
- A.A. Kamalova. Updated European recommendations for the introduction of complementary foods in children - a topic for reflection. Help for the practitioner. Russian Bulletin of Perinatology and Pediatrics. 2017 https://www.ped-perinatology.ru/jour/article/viewFile/597/581
- Feeding introduction. Union of Pediatricians of Russia https://www.pediatr-russia.ru/parents_information/soveti-roditelyam/ratsiony-pitaniya-v-razlichnye-vozrastnye-periody/vvedenie-prikorma.php
- Nutrition of children of the first year: topical issues and new trends. Ed. I.N. Zakharova https://remedium.ru/doctor/pediatrics/Pitanie_detey_pervogo_goda_aktualnye_voprosy_i_novye_trendy/
- A.A. Baranov. Pediatrics. https://medicknow.com/bookstudent/pediatriya-baranov/7.php
- I.N. Zakharova, T.E. Borovik, L.L. Stepurina et al. Grain-based industrial products in the nutrition of young children. Tutorial. http://irbis.rmapo.ru/UploadsFilesForIrbis/c2e051b430218d5bda9d3378e52fdcdc.pdf
- I.N. Zakharova, Yu.A. Dmitriev. Porridge is the most important type of complementary foods for young children. Issues of modern pediatrics https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/kasha-vazhneyshiy-vid-prikorma-u-detey-rannego-vozrasta/viewer
- Feeding introduction. Russian Union of Pediatricians https://www.pediatr-russia.ru/parents_information/soveti-roditelyam/ratsiony-pitaniya-v-razlichnye-vozrastnye-periody/vvedenie-prikorma.php
- S.G. Makarova. Practical recommendations for the introduction of complementary foods. Pediatric pharmacology. 2015 https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/prakticheskie-rekomendatsii-po-vvedeniyu-prikorma/viewer
- Sophie Rehault-Godbert, Nicolas Guyot, and Yves Nys. The Golden Egg: Nutritional Value, Bioactivities, and Emerging Benefits for Human Health. Nutrients.2019https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6470839/
Tables and schemes for introducing complementary foods to a child, rules for introducing products for the first 6 weeks - Mama Nika
This article is a generalized analysis of two approaches to introducing complementary foods and feeding infants up to a year: the Russian Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences and the World Health Organization (WHO) . Also, the analysis took into account the opinions of some respected pediatricians of our country (Y. Yakovlev and others)
COMPLETE FEEDING CHARTS are just a tool and before they become a grenade you need to learn how to handle them first.
This page contains: PDF file with a table (calendar) for introducing complementary foods for the first 6 weeks
Table for introducing complementary foods for the first 6 weeks - download PDF file .
Before using tables, I strongly recommend that you read this entire article.
The two main principles of introducing complementary foods
The main things to keep in mind before rolling up your sleeves
- Complementary foods are introduced to prepare for the common table (that is, the baby must learn to eat on his own)
- Complementary foods are necessary for the formation of proper eating behavior
the most important of all the variety of reasons to start introducing complementary foods. Of course, there are exceptions in terms of health, but we are talking about a standard situation.
Since the first stage of introducing complementary foods is precisely preparation, no breastfeeding during this period (according to WHO up to 1 year) should be removed or replaced with complementary foods.
And the second conclusion must always be put at the forefront of eating behavior. No cartoons, running after a child with a spoon, and even more so violence and blackmail.
Yes, at the first stage you will stuff the spoon, it is not difficult. It will be much more difficult to retrain a 1.5-year-old child to eat on his own or, even worse, form a food interest from scratch if the child does not start eating properly or refuses to eat (this is an extreme case).
I'll say with the doctor's words “A hungry child eats, but a tired one sleeps”. This reflects the essence of a well-formed eating behavior: I want to eat - I eat. Of course, this is more typical for an older child, when all stages of complementary feeding have been completed. And the right tactics at the very beginning is the key to the successful implementation of this rule in the future.
So, we remove all the rubbish from the head (including those imposed by pediatricians working according to Soviet manuals) and move on to the tactics of the first complementary foods.
When to start introducing complementary foods for a child
When to introduce complementary foods? I have already written about this in part in a general article. Here I will be guided by the WHO methodology stated above. It's written in black and white.
“The start of introducing complementary foods should be considered the age of 6 months, and not the beginning, but the end of 6 months or 26 weeks »
It is important to know the main indicators of readiness for complementary foods other than age .
Not the beginning of 6 months, but the child reaching the age of 6 completed months. Therefore, if your pediatrician once again prescribes complementary foods for you from 4 months without serious medical reasons, you can smile and keep a printout from this manual in your pocket. Non-critical weight loss does not apply here. This is a very complex topic, it should be discussed separately. At least 125 grams per week, babies should gain on GW, and not 700-800-800 ... per month as in their Soviet-era tables.
Dear mothers, breathe out. You have a whole month from 6 to 7 to start introducing complementary foods. It is absolutely not necessary to do this at the 21-22nd week (page 220 of the WHO recommendations, chapter 8).
It is better not to delay 8 months later, as this will already concern the development of certain chewing skills, the development of taste perception, and not just the inability of milk to provide all the needs of a rapidly growing organism in micro and macro elements.
In addition to 7 months, in general, the development of the nervous system allows the child to master the following skills:
- biting and chewing
- cleaning the spoon with the lips
- lateral movements of the tongue
- moving food to the teeth
taste food in pieces, and not just in the form of puree. You need to start with microdoses, more about this in the general article https://www.mama-nika.ru/estestvennyj-prikorm-ili-kak-ne-sojti-s-uma-ot-norm-i-rekomendatsij/.
For some reason, complementary foods consultants, at least those who met me, do not focus on this for a period of weeks. It seems to me that this is very in vain, since such a backlash will allow mom to calmly determine the degree of readiness of the baby to introduce complementary foods. And this is also very important for the formation of proper eating behavior.
Feeding food too early can have a negative effect on the formation of the correct nutritional interest . The unpreparedness of the child, in turn, can lead to nervousness of the mother, as the child will refuse complementary foods, or the gastrointestinal tract will fail, then persuasion, dancing with tambourines, and so on. All this alone will not solve the problem. This is already a consequence.
It is important to determine how ready your child is for complementary foods . Not ready - move the start to 6.5 - 6.7 months. It's not critical.
2 clear signs of readiness for the introduction of complementary foods
- Readiness of the gastrointestinal tract
- Readiness of the nervous system (food interest)
First Food Serving Size
Your pediatrician will very likely tell you to increase the serving size to 200 grams. At the preparatory stage, this is completely optional! You remember, not a single breastfeeding (mixture) is replaced. This statement also takes its roots from pediatric tables, where a child at 6 months should consume 1 liter of food per day. We divide this into 5 doses - we get 200 milliliters
But we are talking about breast milk (formula). You breastfeed your baby on demand (if formula, then by grams, but also without changing the schedule before complementary foods). Accordingly, this recommendation has no weight until you start replacing one feeding with complementary foods, and this is definitely not the first stage. Unless, of course, you decide to quit breastfeeding early. I am talking about those mothers who plan to breastfeed for at least a year (not even up to 2, as WHO consultants now recommend, although the manual is not so strict and according to the mutual desire of mother and baby).
Myth - Start with canned puree
This myth is actively instilled by the same pediatricians (not all, we have met), scaring mothers with pesticides in purchased zucchini. The WHO guidelines clearly state:
“Ideally, infants should eat the same diet as the whole family” burgers. Therefore, if the mother prepares a common table, all seasonings are introduced after the portion of the baby is postponed. Next, a portion of the baby is brought to the desired consistency.
“Carers of the child should select appropriate foods and prepare them in such a way as to maximize their nutritional value.”
For example, if it is vegetables, steaming is preferable to boiling. Therefore, if you have the time and desire, and even more so if you have access to subsistence farming, a blender and a double boiler are in your hands.
Most importantly, read the basic cooking tips if you cook yourself. And if you decide to stop at canned food, analyze the product lines in your stores, choose the best quality without starch, flour and other surprisingly unnecessary components, and buy according to the complementary food scheme.
However, the same WHO recommendations say that if you choose industrial cans, you still need to give food from the common table, "to accustom the child to a greater variety of taste sensations and structures." Again, food in pieces should be introduced from 7 months, and in one-component vegetable puree, food will be in the form of puree without pieces. Therefore, you still have to cook at least vegetables for microdoses.
Basic rules for the first phase of introducing complementary foods for the first six weeks
Complementary foods of the new product are introduced in the morning , usually for breakfast. Gradually! Serving size increases from 1/2 tsp. up to 150 - 200 gr. maximum within 7 days. Some modern pediatricians recommend extending this period at the first stage to 10-14 days. There are no strict requirements, so watch the child's well-being after introducing new food, his mood and appetite in general.
If you need more than 7 days to adapt to a new food, simply extend the proposed complementary feeding schedule over a longer period, adjusting the amount of food introduced.
Remember! At the input stage, the maximum is how much the child wants to eat (even 2-3 tablespoons), but not more than 150 - 200 gr.
And here it should be noted that a child should consume 200 grams of porridge or vegetables at 9-12 months. according to the methodological recommendations of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (namely, the "Scientific Center for Children's Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences" of the State Institution "Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 2010)
At 6 months. Serving size - 150 gr.
At 7 months — 170 gr.
Therefore, your maximum is the one from which month you introduce complementary foods, and not 200 grams
New food is introduced only after the old food has been fully assimilated . If a product was rejected, we remove it completely, and introduce a new one also according to the scheme. We return to the rejected product no earlier than 14 days. It may take several approaches to try. This is absolutely normal. The child grows, there are more enzymes, tastes change. It is also possible to completely refuse to eat, for example, broccoli. Don't worry, there are many more flavors. Remove the broccoli completely before moving to the common table. Then you will use the method of interest and curiosity to attract the attention of an already grown up baby, with rapture eating the same broccoli from your plate and smacking your lips. It will be much later. And now it doesn't matter.
Assimilated products are gradually shifted to lunch, then to dinner.
The time of meals in the scheme is taken conditionally ! You can shift the total time by 1-2 hours to fit your sleep and wake schedule. It is desirable that the meal regimen be maintained at the time you have chosen. If breakfast is at 10:00, then it is always at 10:00 +/-10 min. From the very beginning, the regimen will help you form an understanding of the time of meals. And in the future, it will be easier for the child to control his appetite. That is, the appetite will come around for lunch, dinner, and not "when I want."
Remember! Biting during the day is a bad habit and your path to the term "little one".
Do not chase volumes at the first stage of introducing complementary foods! Verbatim from the WHO manual: “The goal in the initial stage is to teach the child to eat from a spoon ... Learn the habits of eating and enjoy new tastes”
grams!) the number of products selected from a wide variety of products, 1-2 times a day”
This means that there is no need to frantically increase the volume of new food to a full serving of 150-200 grams!! Provided that you continue to feed on demand, and breast milk remains a priority for up to a year (that is, the completion of all stages of the introduction of complementary foods and the transition to a regular common table). If you are formula feeding, you are also feeding normally at this stage. Not replacing any feeding with complementary food.
Traditional introduction of complementary foods starts with cereals or vegetables 9WHO does not prohibit the introduction of fruits immediately, as recommended by modern complementary foods. It is enough to open any chat, where “fruit after meat” will flash here and there. This opinion exists in view of the fact that a child can get used to sweet apples and refuse to eat broccoli. It is not devoid of common sense.
Therefore, in order to minimize the possible risk of refusing vegetables, I will be guided by their recommendation in the scheme. Moreover, fruits are not the main meal, but serve for a variety of tastes and as a treat.
If you want to introduce fruits earlier, such as moderately sweet seasonal apples. Below is the serving size in grams also by month from RAMS. However, remember that apples and pears also need to be baked the first time, because. in their raw form, they carry a fairly large load on the digestive tract. Also, we introduce seasonal fruits, no mangoes, bananas or passion fruit, etc., and cooked correctly.
6 months — 60 g / 7 months — 70 gr.
All products are introduced without the addition of salt, sugar and spices. Note that in the WHO recommendations for the first complementary foods, both cereals and vegetables are good.
In Russian pediatric practice, there is such an experience: The child is “low weight” - start with cereals; problems with stool - with vegetables.
On the one hand, this statement is not without meaning, since the calorie content of cereals is indeed higher than breast milk and vegetables. However, we have already found out that there is no approved serving size at the first stage of the introduction of complementary foods
If the child eats his 150 grams of porridge, then yes. And if he eats 30-50 grams for 3-5 weeks and no more, these recommendations make no logical sense.
However, like the concept of "lightweight" is now so vague. A perfectly normal developing child of small-sized mothers and fathers will never enter the norms of pediatrician tables, which were written back in Soviet times for children on mixtures, and are completely outdated. But even there, and what can we say about the outback, these terrible 600-800-800 grams of the set are in front of mothers' eyes.
By the way, our child is also the first 4 months. I was gaining about 550-600 grams per month along the lower border, and at 4 and 5 I fulfilled the double norm and only on breast milk. Our pediatrician, although she works in a private clinic and is in good standing in the reviews, also insisted on complementary foods from 4 months. I refused. And, on the contrary, she moved complementary foods by 6.5 months, when the baby began to actively show food interest.
Therefore, think for yourself - decide for yourself. This is only your responsibility. In a year or two, your visits to the pediatrician will become much less frequent, and, by and large, she will not care what you eat there, she has a queue outside the door and 17 minutes for an appointment.
You can discuss for a long time why most pediatricians still work this way, this question has long been very well answered by the doctor himself in his book “The Health of the Child and the Common Sense of His Relatives”, the chapter “Relationships with the District Pediatrician”. Very sobering and clearly shows whose child it is.
Therefore, let's get behind pediatricians, not everyone is lucky enough to find their even paid good doctor, so we will educate ourselves and go to the pediatrician on medical issues, narrower and with specific questions, writing them down in advance on a piece of paper. And with food, we will somehow figure it out ourselves.
And finally. If your child eats with appetite, learns new tastes well, is ready to eat more, you will pass the first stage in 6 to 8 weeks. Or it may happen that the child does not want to eat first one, then another. Then the preparatory stage of the introduction of complementary foods may be delayed and this is not critical.
The main thing is to keep calm and self-control, look with the child for tastes that he will like in order to form the basis of dishes by the second stage ☝️ with which you will experiment further. The second stage begins with the introduction of meat and fruits (I indicated why above). And by the end of it, you will already get mixes: meat - vegetables, porridge - fruits. We will consider this in another article.
When you should not start complementary foods
- The child is unwell, teething
- Vaccination is due
- A stressful situation is coming for the child, which you know about (a trip, a large number of people at home or going to visit, going to a clinic, etc. )
In these cases, it is better to keep the child as comfortable as possible and minimize stress. Since we remember that the main food at the stage of introducing complementary foods is breast milk, it is more important to maintain interest in it.
Scheme and table of the first stage of complementary feeding for a child for 6 weeks - based on WHO and RAMS recommendations
Scheme for two options for starting complementary foods: vegetables and cereals
Scheme for introducing complementary foods with vegetables (vegetables are introduced first)
- First the most hypoallergenic vegetables are introduced: zucchini - cauliflower - broccoli
- Gluten-free cereals: buckwheat, rice, corn
- Grams are conditional, in proportion to the days of introduction and the maximum serving size (the first day is always 0. 5 teaspoon)
Introducing the most hypoallergenic vegetable - zucchini
Since porridge is traditionally served for breakfast, vegetables are gradually transferred to lunch. At the first stage of entering vegetables, see how it is more convenient for you. Or give two kinds of vegetables for breakfast. Or immediately share for breakfast - lunch. I would divide it up to better control the gastrointestinal reaction and allergies
Similar to the second week, for breakfast instead of cauliflower - broccoli, for lunch zucchini or cauliflower (alternate if both were digested, if not, the product that mastered)
We introduce cereals in the sequence buckwheat - rice - corn grits for breakfast. For lunch, we eat any vegetables already entered in the amount of your maximum (zucchini, cabbage or their mixes). After the assimilation of cereals, we add vegetable oil to them. By the end of this period, the child is offered complementary foods 2 times a day in its maximum volume (150 grams per 1 serving)
Taking into account the fact that in the recommendations of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, cereals are always offered in the morning we cook 2 types of cereals in the morning. Vegetables are left for lunch in the amount of your "full portion" (150 - 170 grams)
Further, by analogy, corn porridge is introduced for breakfast. And for breakfast, rice and buckwheat are left in turn. Also decreasing in volume as the corn porridge increases. Lunch no change - vegetables in the amount of your "full serving" (150 - 170 grams per serving)
Not sure? I also decided that everything is somehow complicated, and therefore I brought everything into one table. Below is a link to download it.
Complementary feeding table for the first 6 weeks
Here is an image with a table below, if you click on it, you can download a PDF file with a complementary feeding table for the first 6 weeks. It also contains grammar and more and more clearly Ska download PDF file - Scheme and table for introducing complementary foods to a child for the first 6 weeks - based on WHO recommendations.
This table can be your sample plan for introducing complementary foods . It also has free cells in which you can put dates and get complementary feeding calendar .
After you have completed these 6 weeks, the first stage of complementary feeding can be considered complete. You can either replace the remaining vegetables at the first stage, for example, if something from the first three does not work, or introduce gradually at the second stage already with meat and fruits. This will be even better since they are more allergenic.
You can add a little breast milk (or formula) to the finished porridge and puree for taste, as I wrote earlier. ☝️ Do not cook! Don't forget to add vegetable oil. By the end of the first stage, the volume of vegetable oil will be about 3 grams. More detailed information on the steps for entering products and quantities in the table below. It will also come in handy for 2-4 stages.
Next comes the second stage of the introduction of complementary foods. I will talk about its features in a separate article, also based on the recommendations of WHO and RAMS.
Gluten-free and milk-free cereals are introduced first. This is important in order to minimize the risk of developing an allergy to gluten and cow's milk protein. There is a detailed article about gluten and “what it is eaten with” on the website. Gluten-free is buckwheat, rice, corn (like cereals). At the first stage, these tastes are enough for the child.
To get a scheme for introducing complementary foods from cereals, you just need to swap all cereals with vegetables in the "scheme for introducing complementary foods from vegetables" (above in this material). That is, first we put buckwheat instead of zucchini, then rice instead of cauliflower - corn porridge instead of broccoli. Then come vegetables zucchini - cauliflower - broccoli. Grams remain unchanged.
Important points during the introduction of complementary foods
- Be sure to monitor the child's condition and his reactions to the introduction of new foods. A food diary can help you with this. So you can understand what and when you gave, if you see an allergy or problems with the stool, or a change in the general condition. When most of the products have already been introduced, you can refuse it.
- When weaning begins, start offering water if the baby is breastfed without supplementation. At this stage, there is no mandatory rule. How much he drinks, how much he drinks. Water is better to offer raw purified or baby water, not boiled. As Dr. Komarovsky says: "boiled water does not exist in nature."
What to breastfeed or complementary foods first?
On page 229 of chapter 8 of the WHO recommendations it is clearly stated:
“Food should be offered after breastfeeding to avoid replacing breast milk with complementary foods.” Again a mismatch.
It is logical that it would be more convenient for the baby to drink complementary foods that are not very tasty. Pediatrician Yakov Yakovlev writes about the same thing and believes that not everyone wants some kind of complementary foods after milk, and this issue needs to be approached individually. After 6 months the risk of reduced lactation is not great.
Breastfeeding remains the main source of nutrition for a baby up to a year. Unless, of course, you decide for some reason to complete it earlier. Then you switch not to complementary foods, but to a mixture and give it on schedule and in volumes already according to age.
It will be possible to replace feeding after completion of all stages of introduction of products, namely after a year. The child goes to the common table, and breast milk remains a pleasant bonus as long as it brings mutual pleasure to mother and child. In general, the WHO recommends that breastfeeding be stopped until 2 years of age. Russian science is not so categorical.
The main and most important rule for introducing complementary foods!
- Complementary foods are not forced! If you see, the child categorically does not eat what is offered, spits, hysteria (not just pushes out with his tongue, but does not even try to taste it), no matter how the grandmothers, the pediatrician, the husband and even the neighbor who has a child at 6 months old insist. already ate a baked apple, ☝️ leave this venture for at least a week - or even two. No violence, no shoving, worse than being held at the table. This is an indicator that the time has not yet come for your baby.
- Create your first food interest! Sit on your knees when you eat, show food, spoons, plates. Let everything touch. Just remove anything dangerous, sharp, hot or valuable and expensive from the access area. Babies learn so quickly that you won't even notice how the baby himself or herself takes a spoon. Even if you do not remember anything written above, this point is the most important. Understanding that everything has its time will save your nerves. And for a baby, a calm and affectionate mother is more important than a belly stuffed according to outdated rules.
After re-reading a bunch of literature, having reached the very essence of this seemingly most mundane topic, only one question remained in my head. Why do our scientific minds from the Academy of Sciences and representatives of pediatrics for the most part (here I give a purely personal experience, whom I met and read myself) so actively insist on the early introduction of complementary foods.
If now there is an opportunity for mom to eat right, take high-quality vitamins and minerals, baby formulas are adapted, why this rush? Why injure an unprepared gastrointestinal tract, which will become a possible cause of upset not only for the baby’s tummy, but also for mother’s nerves.
The only answer that came to my mind was whether it was lobbying interests of baby food manufacturers at the government level. Or maybe this is a way to quickly adapt the child to kindergarten, where you have to eat everything on your plate and there is no time to experiment with tastes? Before she eats, before mommy goes to work and begins to work for the good of the state, pay taxes to the treasury. First, buy jars of food manufacturers, then earn on new ones. And the child is in kindergarten, the state provides him with a place in society, if you're lucky. If not, mom and dad will have an incentive to earn money for a private kindergarten. Of course, this is not a declared topic at all, but my analytical thoughts have gone so far.
Perhaps you will also have interesting thoughts on this matter. Share, let's discuss here. And let's leave our children behind. You and I will have time to prepare pancakes and cutlets in another year. Let's be literate now, let's read the instructions and manuals of various respected organizations, collect the opinions of various respected pediatricians, and not blindly believe the one who was given to us by the state in our area. As the well-known doctor says, our medicine is free, and, accordingly, the approach to care and treatment costs the same amount.
Love children - breastfeed!
This material was created based on the recommendations of the WHO "Feeding and Nutrition of Infants and Young Children"
If you have read the article in full and watched all the videos on this page - this is a real reason to be proud of yourself! Below is my set of tutorials!FULL SET OF FEEDING INTRODUCTION TABLES AND METHODS FOR A CONFIDENT START
Complementary feeding tables for introducing the main categories of products: cereals, vegetables, meat, fruits, dairy products
All complementary foods, including water, teas, juices, milk and milk equivalents
Toolkit: How to select vegetables, prepare and serve safely.