Foods to avoid when breastfeeding a colicky baby
Foods to Avoid to Prevent Colic – Lola&Lykke
An expecting or new mother fears a lot of possible future scenarios, but one of the more common and everyday issues that she is, unfortunately, more likely to face is also one of the most mysterious, baffling, and frustrating: colic, which one in five infants are said to have. In this article, we’ll go over the definition of colic as well as the link it has to diet - namely, the mother’s. We’ll offer tips for how you can modify your diet, including foods to avoid during breastfeeding, to prevent colic.
What is Colic?
Colic is one of the more challenging problems a new parent can face. It’s when your new baby cries in a prolonged, intense, and frequent way despite being otherwise healthy. Colicky babies most often have their episodes in the evening, making it even tougher on already-tired parents who desperately want peace and quiet. Naturally, it’s heartbreaking to watch your baby suffer and not know why, and colic is all the more frustrating because it doesn’t seem to have any particular cause and no amount of soothing seems to help.
Does Your Baby Have Colic?
Defined as an infant crying intensely for three or more hours a day, three or more days a week, for three or more weeks, colic usually peaks when an infant is about six weeks old and declines after they reach three or four months of age. It can happen to any baby: breastfed or formula-fed, male or female, premature or full-term.
Symptoms of colic include:
- Intense, often high-pitched crying that resembles screaming or an expression of pain
- Crying that doesn’t seem to be tied to any particular reason such as needing to be fed or get a diaper change
- Intense fussiness that continues even after the crying stops or declines
- Predictable timing of crying episodes that occur especially in the late afternoon or early evening
- Facial discoloration such as a reddened face or pale mouth
- Body tension in the legs, arms, fists, back, or abdomen
- Colic episodes followed by a bowel movement or passing of gas that may bring temporary relief
- The baby closing their eyes tight or opening them wide, furrowing their brow, or even holding their breath
- Crying that disrupts eating and sleeping patterns
It’s important to note that colic is a condition that occurs in otherwise healthy babies. If your baby is intensely crying on a regular basis, it’s important to rule out the possibility of a non-colic cause that is leading to pain or discomfort in your baby, such as illness. If your infant experiences excessive crying, you should schedule an appointment with your doctor to see if an underlying cause can be found instead of assuming that it must be colic. Together, you will be able to determine if your baby does indeed have colic.
Can Your Diet Really Upset Your Breastfed Baby?
While the causes of colic are unknown, there is much speculation about what may lead to this condition. Theories for potential reasons include an imbalance of healthy gut bacteria, childhood migraine, overstimulated senses, acid reflux, an undeveloped digestive system, food allergy, and tobacco exposure.
Another popular theory is that colic may be tied to the diet of the breastfed baby’s mother. According to WebMD, “A study published in the [November 2005] issue of Pediatrics suggests that excluding highly allergenic foods from a nursing mother's diet could reduce crying and fussiness in her newborn's first six weeks of life. ”
There are several reasons to believe this may be the case. First, it’s known that the diet of a breastfeeding mother does affect the infant. If the mother consumes something that upsets the stomach of the newborn, this can lead to discomfort and crying. There also seems to be a link between colic and gastrointestinal distress; colicky infants are often gassy and passing gas is often followed by relief.
There are, in fact, several studies that have shown that a change in the mother’s diet can lead to a significant diminishment of colic symptoms, namely in how long the babies cried each day. Other studies have found a link between the consumption of certain foods by the breastfeeding mother and colic in breastfed infants. Ultimately, research suggests that an elimination diet may help ease symptoms of colic.
Learn more: What to eat while breastfeeding
Foods to Avoid
One category of colic foods to avoid while nursing is those that many people have an allergy to, such as:
- Cow’s milk
- Peanuts, tree nuts
With cow’s milk being the most common infant allergy. In one 2005 study, 74% of breastfed babies whose mothers ate a low-allergen diet eliminating all of the above ingredients showed significant improvement in colic.
Another type of colic baby breastfeeding food to avoid is the category of foods that often creates a lot of intestinal gas, namely cruciferous vegetables. This includes cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and brussels sprouts. One 1996 study found that mothers who ate diets high in cabbage, cauliflower, and broccoli were more likely to have colicky babies. As these foods are high in fructans, which are difficult to digest, they can cause gas and bloating.
It is often assumed that foods that are unhealthy for adults will also be unhealthy if they make it into a breastfed baby’s diet, which is why many sources recommend that breastfeeding mothers looking to reduce colic should avoid unhealthy foods such as highly-processed foods and foods high in saturated or trans fats.
While it is debatable whether chocolate is healthy for you or not, with dark chocolate in particular often being cited as a healthy food, the same 1996 study that linked certain cruciferous vegetables with colic also found that mothers who ate a lot of chocolate were more likely to have colicky babies. However, it isn’t specified which type of chocolate, and it very well may be that milk chocolate may have this effect due to containing cow’s milk. It’s also thought that the problem may be the acidity of chocolate, which can cause acid reflux.
Breastfeeding Diet for a Colic-Free Baby
While various sources may name a list of foods to eat while breastfeeding to avoid colic, there isn’t any scientific evidence pointing to the possibility that including certain particular foods in your diet can help colic. That being said, it is reasonable to conclude that a generally healthy lifestyle and diet with a variety of nutritious foods is what will be best for the mother and, in turn, the baby.
As such, a healthy diet for breastfeeding mothers to avoid colic may include:
- Plenty of water to stay hydrated
- Fruits and non-cruciferous vegetables
- Whole grains
- Lean proteins
- Apple cider vinegar
It’s particularly worth noting that there have been studies that have shown that probiotics can help colic by helping infants form a protective barrier against harmful bacteria and stimulating the immune system. One 2007 study found that “colic improved in a dramatic 95% of babies given Lactobacillus reuteri once per day for 1 month.” While it is not wise to begin a course of probiotics on your own, it may be something worth speaking to your doctor about.
If you want to go the more natural route, foods high in probiotics include:
- Sourdough bread
- Some cheeses
However, because many of these contain common allergens like dairy, wheat, and soy, kombucha has alcohol in it, and sauerkraut and kimchi are based on the cruciferous vegetable cabbage, you may not want to take the risk of eating them. For that reason, a doctor-approved probiotic dietary supplement might be the best route for mums who are considering probiotics as a solution to colic.
If you do decide to change your diet in response to colic, especially if you want to start probiotics or try an elimination diet, it’s important to consult a medical professional such as a dietitian, who can monitor you and your baby’s nutrition and health and make personalised recommendations.
At the end of the day, the unfortunate truth is that there is no “cure” for colic. However, you can be reassured by the fact that - diet change or no diet change - colic doesn’t last forever; there is an end in sight. Colic is not your fault and while you can do your best to treat it, you should never feel guilty that it is happening. Do your best, take care of yourself and your baby to the best of your ability, and - sooner or later - the colic will pass.
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by Lola&Lykke Team
- Diet & Nutrition
10 Foods to Avoid When Breastfeeding A Colic Baby
Motherhood is one of the most wonderful experiences in a woman’s life, but this phase may turn into a nightmare if your baby cries incessantly on a regular basis. In most cases, the reason for this frantic crying is colic – this can make your baby cranky and fussy.
Colic usually affects babies a few weeks after birth – 2 weeks to be precise – and in most cases, it subsides as they grow older (about 3 or 4 months of age). The crying bouts usually occur during late afternoons or evenings, and the symptoms may include high-pitched wails, clenched fists, a tense body, knees towards the tummy, etc. If your baby has colic, one of the reasons for it could be your food choices. If you eat gassy foods while breastfeeding, your baby may have stomach pain, and he might cry as a result. While in your nursing phase, there are certain foods that you can avoid to improve your baby’s condition and to make sure he is not colicky because of the foods you eat.
Why Should a Nursing Mother Avoid Foods That Cause Colic?
Your baby’s solitary source of nutrition up until six months of age is almost always breast milk. What you eat indirectly affects his health. Sometimes, your little one can be intolerant to certain food items that you may be consuming, and under such circumstances, your baby may suffer from colic. Therefore, you may need to identify the foods that cause colic in babies and remove them from your diet.
Foods and Drinks to Avoid While Breastfeeding a Colicky Baby
As a breastfeeding mother, you will have to be extra careful and avoid the following foods in your diet. This is because traces of these foods and beverages can enter your baby’s system through the breastmilk he consumes. It may cause gas troubles and bloating, which may make him uncomfortable and colicky.
1. Aerated Beverages
Do not consume aerated drinks while breastfeeding your baby as such drinks can increase toxins in your body, which in turn can affect your baby’s health. Instead, opt for natural fruit juices or lemonades.
2. Caffeinated Beverages
Tea and coffee or any kind of caffeinated beverages are known to cause gas and bloating. Consuming caffeinated beverages may result in gas and bloating in your baby, which can make him cry. However, if you cannot go without tea or coffee, consult your doctor about the quantity you can drink.
Including certain kinds of legumes such as kidney beans, soy, etc. may cause excessive gas in babies, leading to discomfort and colic.
4. Energy Drinks
Control your urge to consume energy drinks while breastfeeding, as these drinks can affect your baby’s health adversely due to the presence of chemicals and preservatives that accumulate in your body. These then get passed on to your baby, leaving him uncomfortable.
5. Hot and Spicy Food
Hot and spicy foods are enjoyed by many. However, it is a good idea to stay away from such foods items during breastfeeding as they could bring about changes in the flavour of the breast milk and trouble the baby’s digestive system.
6. Junk Food
Junk food is not only low in nutrition but also bad for the health of your baby because of all the preservatives it carries. Consuming it on a regular basis can affect you and your baby’s digestive system and lead to colic and other harmful health conditions.
7. High Amounts of Dairy
Many newbie mommies are told that consuming a lot of milk may help in increasing milk production; there is no evidence to prove that. On the other hand, more amounts of dairy products may lead to digestion issues for the mother and may cause colic in babies.
8. Consuming Nuts
Nuts are a good source of protein and fats, but consuming some variety of nuts such as almonds and cashew nuts may lead to the formation of gas and tummy problems in infants.
Eggs are a nutritional powerhouse. However, consuming egg whites may lead to gastric troubles in babies.
10. Eating Certain Vegetables
There are certain vegetables that may trigger colic in your baby due to improper digestion and accumulation of gas in the stomach, leading to intense pain. Some of these are cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, etc.
You may ask your doctor about an anti-colic breastfeeding diet to reduce the symptoms of colic in babies.
Tips to Prevent the Onset of Colic in Infants
As a parent, you may find it disheartening to see your little one in pain and you may want to try everything to soothe or comfort him. Here we have some tips that may help in preventing colic in babies:
- Give smaller amounts of breast milk to your baby at regular intervals as it may help your baby digest the milk better.
- You may ask your doctor to help you decide the best diet for breastfeeding mothers to prevent colic in your baby. Exclude all the triggers from your diet.
- Refrain from including caffeinated beverages or dairy products in your diet. If you have to, limit their intake or ask your doctor about the ideal intake.
- There are herbal supplements available that you may consider taking in order to reduce the occurrence of colic in your baby.
We recommend that you consult your doctor and decide what you want to do to help get rid of colic in your baby.
When to Consult a Doctor
Though most cases of colic are easily manageable, sometimes you may need to consult your baby’s doctor. This may happen when you notice your baby experiencing diarrhoea, vomiting, or other such alarming symptoms.
For the well-being and the optimal growth and development of your baby, it is important that your baby is fed properly – breast milk one of the best ways of providing nutrition to your baby. However, sometimes as a new mommy, you may experience various challenges while feeding your baby. But with proper assistance and medical intervention, you may overcome these challenges.
Resources and References: WebMD
Also Read: Fruits to Eat and Avoid during Breastfeeding
A woman's life changes with the birth of a child. All other problems fade into the background. The main goal is to take care of the baby. In order for a child to grow up strong and healthy, he needs good nutrition. Breastfeeding allows the baby to receive a vital complex of vitamins and nutrients. However, so that when breastfeeding the baby does not have additional problems in the form of colic or allergic reactions, the mother needs to follow a diet while breastfeeding.
Why a diet is needed
Is a diet really necessary when breastfeeding?
In order for the child to get enough nutrients, the mother needs to eat foods rich in vital vitamins and minerals.
Please note! The mother's diet should be based on the principles of a healthy diet.
Do not go to extremes. Knowing that she takes food not only for herself, but also for the child, many women begin to eat 2 times more. This has a detrimental effect on the health of a woman due to excessive stress. Or, in an effort to return to their usual forms after the birth of a baby, women go on a strict diet. It also adversely affects the quality of breast milk.
Do not think that the diet of a nursing mother implies strict restrictions in everything. The main thing is to follow a proper and balanced diet.
Proper nutrition for breastfeeding women
In order for the baby to get all the necessary nutrients in sufficient quantities, and for the mother’s body to recover quickly after childbirth, it is recommended to follow the basic advice of breastfeeding experts:
- Try to keep a daily routine and eat at the same time.
- Try to eliminate processed foods, canned foods, smoked and spicy foods from your diet.
- The mother's main diet should include the following useful substances: protein, carbohydrates, fats.
- It is very useful to eat greens. It stimulates the gastrointestinal tract well.
- If a mother experiences mild discomfort, dizziness, nausea while breastfeeding, she needs to drink a glass of warm compote or tea with biscuits or unsweetened pastries.
Many young mothers are concerned about the question: is it possible to eat foods that cause allergies while breastfeeding.
It is not recommended to eat foods that can cause allergies in the mother or child in the first months of his life. When the baby reaches the age of 4-5 months, you can gradually begin to introduce additional foods into the mother's diet.
Please note! Take them in small portions in the morning. After taking it, you should monitor the condition of the child for several days.
If there is no allergic reaction, you can continue to eat such foods.
If you notice that with the introduction of a new product in the diet, the baby's stool has changed, and a rash has appeared, postpone its use for several months.
Products - allergens
Foods that can cause an allergic reaction:
- Citrus fruits
- Coffee and cocoa
- Chocolate and chocolates
- Dairy products from cow's milk
You can start eating them after the baby is six months old. At this age, the main allergens practically do not penetrate into the mother's milk and are safe for the baby.
It is worth remembering that if the child is prone to allergic reactions, it is necessary to continue natural breastfeeding as long as possible, and postpone the start of complementary feeding to a later date. Optimally - after 1 year.
What not to eat while breastfeeding
There are a huge number of products in the world that can cause irreparable harm to the health of not only the mother, but also the child. A nursing mother should be careful when eating.
Thus, the following foods should be completely excluded:
- Foods that cause an allergic reaction
- Soups with meat and fish broths
- Pickled products
- Sour food
- Sweet dishes
- Salty food
- Carbonated drinks
Apples, watermelon, melon, coffee can be consumed in limited quantities, provided that the child does not have an allergic reaction to these products.
Eliminate smoking, alcohol and drugs
For the formation of a healthy child's body, a nursing mother is strictly forbidden to use:
- Narcotic substances
Remember that smoking is also harmful to the body of both mother and child.
The main food should be rich in nutrients and contain the necessary amount of useful vitamins and minerals. What should a mother eat while breastfeeding?
- Eat foods rich in protein. For example, fish, turkey, veal, rabbit. It is acceptable to eat lean pork.
- Calcium is very useful for a child. It is found in the following products: cottage cheese, natural kefir, drinking yogurt, low-fat sour cream.
- Food rich in fats. Their body receives from olive, vegetable and butter oils.
- Fruit. They should be used with caution. You can start with apples, gradually adding other fruits to your diet. Make sure that they contain a minimum amount of acids.
- Vegetables. Limit yourself to greenery. Other types of vegetables are best consumed boiled or in the form of stews.
- Flour products. It is highly recommended not to eat fresh white bread. Better buy dark bread, preferably bran. It should not be consumed fresh. Ideally, bread for the diet of a nursing mother should be yesterday's. Homemade shortbread cookies and bread are also allowed.
- Sweet dishes. Give preference to natural products. They should contain a minimum amount of sugar. Allowed to use jam, marshmallow, marshmallows without chocolate, marmalade. Remember that sugary foods should be consumed in limited quantities.
Speaking about the diet of a nursing mother, one cannot but mention such an important aspect as the organization of drinking.
Please note! For the normal process of lactation of the mother, it is necessary to consume an increased amount of liquid per day.
So, to the usual 2 liters of fluid per day for a nursing mother, you need to add up to 1 liter of fluid per day. It doesn't have to be water. You can take the following types of drink:
- Unsweetened compote
- Natural juice
Increased fluid intake should be started gradually. At the same time, monitor the condition of your child.
Mother's diet and medicines
A woman's body weakened by childbirth is susceptible to various diseases. In many cases, for their effective treatment, the doctor prescribes antibiotics. How will drugs affect the lactation process?
Ask a specialist if the prescribed medicine can be used while breastfeeding. If not, check if lactation-safe analogues of the drug can be taken.
What to eat while breastfeeding | Breastfeeding Diet
You know that breast milk is the best food for your baby. What about your own nutrition while breastfeeding? We asked the nutritionist a few questions about the nutrition of a nursing mother.
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Priya Tew, UK-based registered dietitian :
Priya is a nutritionist, M.D., multi-award winning member of the British Dietetic Association and the Health Professions Council. She has three children, and she breastfed each of them for up to 18 months.
There is no need to follow a special diet while breastfeeding, as long as your diet is balanced. It should include plenty of fruits and vegetables, whole grains such as oats, brown rice, various cereals, and breads labeled "whole grain", "wholemeal" or "wholemeal". These foods, along with potatoes, pasta, and couscous, are high in starch, an important source of energy.
In addition, you need lean proteins found in chicken, eggs, legumes, lentils, fish, and lean beef, as well as healthy fats found in olive oil, nuts, seeds, avocados, and fatty fish such as salmon and mackerel. Oily fish is very good for your health and development of your baby, but you should not eat more than two servings per week (about 140 g), as it may contain harmful impurities. 1
Should I take vitamins while breastfeeding?
The most important is vitamin D. It is essential for healthy bones, yours and your baby's. We get most of this vitamin from the sun. If you live in a region with insufficient solar activity, especially in winter, your body may lack it. In this case, the doctor may advise taking vitamin D supplements. 2
You also need to get enough calcium, as it is excreted from the body during breastfeeding. 3 Try to eat four servings of foods rich in this mineral a day. These can be dairy products such as milk, yogurt, and cheese, or non-dairy products such as nuts, tofu, sesame seeds, and leafy vegetables. One serving may consist of, for example, half a cup of green vegetables or a small piece of cheese (50 g).
What foods should I avoid while breastfeeding?
The good news is that you can eat almost anything while breastfeeding. Only the consumption of oily fish should be limited. In small quantities, even caffeine is acceptable - more on this below.
If you are not allergic to peanuts, there is no reason to deny yourself products that contain peanuts. Recent studies show that if you eat peanuts while breastfeeding and gradually introduce them into your baby's diet during the first year, your baby will be less likely to become allergic to them in the future. 4
Do I need extra calories while breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding mothers need about 500 more calories a day. 5 But every mother is unique and your energy needs will change throughout your breastfeeding period. The number of calories you need depends on your baby's age, appetite, height, and weight, as well as your body mass index (BMI), your activity, and factors such as whether you are exclusively breastfeeding or not, and whether you are breastfeeding twins or multiple babies.
Can I go on a diet while breastfeeding?
Trying to lose weight while breastfeeding is not a good idea because you need to get enough nutrients for you and your baby. The fat accumulated during pregnancy is used to produce milk, so breastfeeding in itself will help you shed those extra pounds.
If your weight changes by more than 1 kg per week, check if you are eating a healthy and balanced diet and adjust if necessary. You can also ask your doctor for advice.
How can I find time to prepare healthy meals?
Having devoted yourself to feeding a child, you can forget about your own nutrition. However, it is important to ensure that your diet does not consist only of sweets and cookies. Of course, sweet snacks are easy and quick, but they do not bring any benefit to your body.
Opt for quick yet nutritious meals like scrambled eggs with spinach or fried chicken with brown rice. Oatmeal is great for breakfast, as it provides a slow release of energy from grains and soluble dietary fiber, which is what you need to restore strength in the morning after a night of breastfeeding.
Store pre-cut fruits and vegetables in the refrigerator for light snacks, or carry unsalted nuts in your bag. It's much easier than peeling tangerines with one hand while holding a baby with the other.
Should I drink more water while breastfeeding?
Breastfeeding can make you thirsty, so it's important to drink enough water. A person needs six to eight glasses of fluid a day, and even more if breastfeeding. 6 Make it a habit to drink a glass of water, milk or fruit juice without sugar every time you feed your baby.
I love coffee. Do I need to quit caffeine?
Coffee, like everything you eat or drink, passes into breast milk, so it is advisable to limit your intake while breastfeeding. Legal coffee limits vary by country, but the average recommendation is not to exceed 200-300 mg of caffeine per day (300 mg is equivalent to two cups of filtered coffee or four cups of tea). Talk to your doctor about the acceptable amount of coffee consumption for you. Also, don't forget that caffeine is found in cola and energy drinks, and a small bar of dark chocolate can contain up to 50 mg. 7
If I eat a varied diet, will my baby be less picky about food?
Breast milk has the flavor of everything you eat. 8 Therefore, if you eat a variety of foods while breastfeeding, giving your baby different tastes, he may like them in the future.
If you like spicy and spicy foods, there is no reason to refuse them while breastfeeding. When my first child was born, I ate a lot of spicy food. When my daughter was two years old, we went to Sri Lanka, coincidence or not, but she ate absolutely everything.
Is there anything in my diet that is not suitable for a child?
At an early age, babies often suffer from colic or are picky eaters, so mothers naturally wonder if their diet is causing this. Probably not. Studies show that the proportion of children who are allergic to any component of breast milk is only slightly more than 1%. 9 Cow's milk, eggs, corn, and soy proteins in moms' diets are much more likely to cause allergic reactions than spicy foods, hot sauces, or cruciferous vegetables, which moms usually worry about.
If your baby is allergic to substances in your milk, it can cause profuse vomiting, rash, bloody stools, or prolonged constipation. If your baby has an intolerance to any food, you will notice symptoms such as moodiness and crying after feeding, burping, diarrhea, or the baby will press his knees to his chest. Contact your doctor if something is bothering you. He may suggest eliminating certain foods for a couple of weeks, and then see if the child's behavior changes after eating them again.
You can also keep a food diary: write down everything you eat and drink, as well as your child's symptoms, and you may notice some patterns. However, before cutting out any foods, such as dairy, always check with your doctor, as it's important to know that you're getting the nutrients you need from other sources. Depending on where you live, you will be referred to a nutritionist or other specialist.
Does a vegetarian diet affect breast milk?
If you are getting enough calories and all the nutrients your body needs (carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals), then you have nothing to worry about. A vegetarian or vegan diet requires plenty of vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, and omega-3 fatty acids while breastfeeding, so opt for foods and supplements that provide you with these essential nutrients.
If you are on a vegetarian, vegan, macrobiotic, or other special diet, you may need additional medical advice to make sure you are getting all the nutrients your baby needs.
1 National Health Service (NHS) [Internet]. Burnley, UK: Department of Health; 2018. Should pregnant and breastfeeding women avoid some types of fish?; 2015 Jul 06 [cited 2018 Apr 12]; Available from: https://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/should-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-avoid-some-types-of-fish.aspx - National Health Service (NHS) [Internet]. Burnley, UK: Department of Health; 2018. "Should a pregnant and lactating woman refrain from eating certain types of fish?"; July 6, 2015 [cited April 12, 2018]; See article on site https://www.nhs.uk/chq/Pages/should-pregnant-and-breastfeeding-women-avoid-some-types-of-fish. aspx
2 Oberhelman SS et al. Maternal vitamin D supplementation to improve the vitamin D status of breast-fed infants: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2013;88(12):1378–1387. - Oberhelman S.S. et al., Introduction of Vitamin D to the Diet of Nursing Mothers to Increase Vitamin D in children: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clean Proc. 2013;88(12):1378–1387. : effects on the mother and the fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194(4):937-945. - Thomas M., Weisman S. M., "Calcium intake during pregnancy and lactation: effects on the mother and on the fetus". Am J Obstet Ginekol (American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology). 2006;194(4):937-945.
4 Pitt and al . Reduced risk of peanut sensitization following exposure through breast-feeding and early peanut introduction. J Allergy Clinic Immunol. 2018;141(2):620-625. e 1 - Pitt et al., "Reducing the Risk of Peanut Allergy by Introducing Peanuts into the Breastfeeding Mother's Diet and as a Baby's First Food." G Allergy Clean Immunol. 2018;141(2):620-625.e1
5 Dewey KG. Energy and protein requirements during lactation. Annu Rev Nutr. 1997 Jul;17(1):19-36. - Dewey K. J., "Energy and Protein Requirements During Lactation". Annu Rev Nutr . 1997 Jul;17(1):19-36.
6 Food Standards Agency (FSA) [Internet]. London, UK: Crown copyright 2002. Eating for breastfeeding; [cited 2018 Apr 13]; Available from: https://www.food.gov.uk - Food Standards Agency (FSA) [Internet]. London, UK: State Copyright 2002. "Eat to feed" [cited April 13, 2018]. See article on https://www.food.gov.uk
7 National Health Service (NHS) [Internet].