Hero baby food spain

Baby & Toddler Food | Hero Group

Baby & Toddler Food

We are proud to have fed babies all over the world for generations. Our baby food portfolio consists of a wide range of brands and products.

Our local brands have a long history of offering consumers the best in class nutrition and always respecting the goodness of the natural ingredients. This is why we work with the best natural ingredients and do not add artificial preservatives. We strive to always encourage the love of good food and live up to the trust our consumers put in us.

Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition

Our baby and toddler food and milk products are developed and produced in association with the Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition and our own Scientific Advisory Board comprised of internationally renowned pediatricians and nutritionists.

Baby & Toddler Food brand overview

We offer a variety of baby and toddler food and snacks in countless markets under different brand names. Find out more below.

Hero Baby

Hero Baby was founded in Spain in 1985 and is our brand for baby and toddler food and milks. All our Hero Baby products are developed with the support of our Hero Institute for Infant Nutrition. Today, these products are sold in several countries, including the Netherlands, Belgium, China, Luxembourg, Turkey, Egypt, the Gulf states, and various other export countries.

For more information, please visit:

Hero Baby (Spain)
Hero Baby (Netherlands)
Hero Baby (MEA)
Hero Baby (Turkey)


Semper is the leading baby food brand in Sweden, enjoying a strong reputation based on the experience the company has gained since its founding in 1938. Semper also enjoys a strong position within baby nutrition in Denmark, Norway, Finland, Iceland and the Baltic countries. Semper is now also available in China and Russia.

Semper (General)
Semper (Sweden)
Semper Denmark)
Semper (Finland)
Semper (Norway)
Semper (Russia)
Semper (China)


Our US-based baby food brand Beech-Nut strives to inspire a lifelong love of good food. The range of Beech-Nut naturals was developed with the aspiration to provide consumers with products that are the closest to homemade as possible, and are therefore made from premium ingredients cooked in a gentle way to keep the color and taste of the natural ingredients we use – just fruit and vegetables without any artificial preservatives. Beech-Nut doesn’t offer baby food, but food for babies.

Beech-Nut (US)


Organix works to fulfill its mission that good food should be a choice for everyone. This organic baby food brand was founded in 1992 in the UK and has become a highly appreciated organic brand for consumers who appreciate the philosophy, products, and social engagement of the brand. The No Junk Promise is our commitment to use just natural ingredients in all our Organix products.

Organix (UK)
Organix (Switzerland DE)
Organix (Switzerland FR)

Freche Freunde

At Freche Freunde, life is all about having fun and encouraging little ones to become the biggest fruit and veg fans. The Berlin-based startup offers a broad range of yummy organic snacks for babies and toddlers.

Freche Freunde (Germany)
Freche Freunde (Switzerland)

Baby Gourmet

Baby Gourmet is Canada’s leading brand of organic baby food, specializing in nutritious and delicious packaged food for babies and toddlers. Co-founded in 2005 by sisters Jen and Jill, Baby Gourmet began with a desire to help parents by offering delicious organic food they could feel good feeding their babies.  Today, nearly 20 years later, Baby Gourmet is now a household name for busy families across the country, and Jen and Jill’s desire to help parents and babies on their food journey has remained just as clear. They develop every product and never compromise on quality or taste, using only the very best ingredients.

Baby Gourmet (Canada)


Most Czech and Slovakian babies grow up with Sunar, a traditional leading infant milk brand that also offers different baby food under their Sunarka and Sunarek brands.

Sunar (Czech Rep)
Sunar (Slovakia)


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Hero baby and foods: Spain takes lead worldwide

Agrifood Entrepreneurship

31 October 2022

The company is celebrating its 100th anniversary in Spain, from where it exports 25 tonnes of fruit and vegetables every year

Hero's Spanish subsidiary has become the Swiss company's largest production centre in the baby food and jam categories. One hundred years have passed since the firm first established a plant in Alcantarilla (Murcia) to export fruit and vegetables grown in the Murcia region to the parent company in Switzerland, and the investment has paid off.

That was on 20 January 1922, and today the Spanish headquarters is still based in the same town, from where it continues to export up to 25 tonnes of fruit and vegetables a year to countries all over the world. In fact it’s the group's largest factory in the world, and they say that it’s also their main hub in the baby food category.

A key player
The General Manager of Hero Southern Europe, Javier Uruñuela, explained, “Since the company was founded a hundred years ago, Hero Spain has become a key player in the group. We drive innovation and scientific development, and we have the group’s largest factory, supplying Spain and other countries around the world. In one year alone, we exported 25,000 kilos of fruit and vegetables.”

In Uruñuela's opinion, “this has only been possible thanks to the effort and the entrepreneurial spirit of the people who are or have been a part of Hero in Spain. Just as we boldly made the leap into baby foods in the eighties – and today we’re market leaders with Hero Baby – in the future, we’ll continue to innovate, identifying new business opportunities that will allow us to grow, both in the domestic market and in the neighbouring countries we supply from Spain.”

Commitment to the environment
Founded in Switzerland in 1886 and based in the canton of Lenzburg (in the picture), the Hero Group today is active in over thirty countries, and our products reach all five continents. On the occasion of their centenary in Spain, the firm has published a set of fourteen commitments, aspiring to ensure continued consumer confidence.

The aim is to be a company that is increasingly responsible and respectful of the environment in the areas around its facilities, while at the same time developing increasingly natural foodstuffs with clean labels. The focus is on employee well-being, supporting the local economy, being environmentally sustainable and standing by farmers, as well as maintaining product quality.

In this way, said Uruñuela, “we want to honour our legacy: Our one hundred years of experience and effort, the commitment and talent of our people and the trust that our consumers have placed in Hero to feed themselves and their families throughout our history. And we can think of no better way to do that than by committing ourselves to continue doing things just as well for the next hundred years.”

Photo: Hero

Barcelona with children: a guide to the most popular city in Spain

Barcelona with children: a guide to the most popular city in Spain | Perito

Telegram chats and channels along the borders: collected all the main ones in Georgia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Finland and Norway


SpainBarcelonaChildren then at a music festival, someone to hang out, go to a museum and have a drink, and someone came for everything at once.

Anastasia Solomina


People go to Barcelona to hang out during the holidays, attend a Barcelona match, celebrate a birthday, relax just for the two of them, make an offer, take a walk at a hen or stag party, spend a vacation with their parents . .. And then children appear. What to do if you dream of Barcelona, ​​but a baby in a stroller, a restless toddler or an obstinate teenager is traveling with you, Nastya Solomina, a mother and almost a Barcelona native, will tell.

Barcelona with a child: when to go?

In this matter it is easier to proceed from the contrary. July and August are the hottest, busiest and most unbearable months in Barcelona. The city is crowded, housing prices are skyrocketing, and the beaches are packed with tourists.

In May and June, the water in the sea is still cool by local standards, but if you usually swim in Lake Ladoga or the Istra Reservoir, then take tickets without hesitation! September is also good: the August heat subsides, European travelers leave for their homes and university dormitories, but the city itself wakes up and comes to life. Shops and stores are opening, the owners of which prefer to leave the stuffy and crowded metropolis in August. By the way, this is a European tradition of big cities - also in Italy and France.

If you are not interested in the sea, try to time your trip to one of the colorful local holidays: the main city festival Festa de la Mercè (September 24, 2019), Catholic Christmas, the parade of the Magi beloved by children Reyes Magos (January 5), Carnival Week ( February 20-26) or the day of knights, dragons, roses and books of Sant Jordi (April 23).

How to fly with a child?

There are thousands of flights to Barcelona. In the summer, cheap charters are more common, but in general, convenient tickets can be found all year round. Pay attention to the details: it’s better to pay extra in advance and book seats nearby, warn you that you need a seat with a folding bassinet, and read the airline’s policy on what type of baggage the stroller belongs to, than to fight at the check-in counter later.

The Barcelona airport is called El Prat and has the code BCN. Girona (Girona, GRO) or Reus (Reus, REU) airports are located quite far from Barcelona. The journey from them will take about an hour and a half by public transport, which does not run at night, so check the time of arrival and departure - if it is too early or too late, it makes sense to book a hotel for one night near these airports.

Moving around Barcelona: transport and children

Barcelona has an excellent public transport system adapted to everyone. Almost all metro and train stations are equipped with elevators and ramps. Sometimes they are closed for repairs, sometimes they are difficult to find - and you have to make a detour (like, for example, on Sants), change from elevator to elevator (like on Catalunya) or squeeze with a stroller into the cabin of a strange travelator (like on Paral lel), but it's not impossible. Buses, trams and train and subway cars have wheelchair spaces and places for passengers with children. They don’t always yield, so feel free to ask to move over and help if you need help.

If you are renting a car, a child under 135 cm must be seated in an appropriate weight group car seat. You can rent a car seat with your car or from one of the baby rental websites like backpackbaby.com, strollaround.eu or easytravelkids.com. There you can also rent a stroller, a folding cradle, a high chair and so on. If the journey is long, it may be more profitable to buy a car seat and other children's things through the local Avito - Wallapop.

Read related: Guide to Barcelona

To take a taxi from the airport with a car seat, just tell the traffic controller about it and wait a bit until the car is picked up for you. If you want to travel by taxi around the city, try to call a car through the MyTaxi or Cabify apps, leaving a comment about the car seat with the group and weight of the child in the "comments to the driver". Unfortunately, this doesn't always work. And do not rely on Uber - it is no longer in Barcelona.

Where to live with a child in Barcelona?

The main rule for a successful search for housing is to always warn that you are with a child, even if it is very small and does not require a separate bed. Not all hotels are designed for families with children, and this is normal. On the other hand, the administrators of hotels for families will help you choose a comfortable room, offer a crib, show you the nearest playground and park the stroller at the reception while you are busy with your luggage and baby. If the hotel website does not say anything about children, call yourself, do not trust Booking and agencies.

Barcelona's districts are not alike, and some may be more pleasant to be with children than others, depending on the tourist season. The central Gothic Quarter (Barrio Gótico) and Born (Born) and artistic Gracia (Gràcia) are crowded and noisy, especially in summer. In the multi-cultural Raval, it can be difficult with children. Poble Sec and Eixample are a bit more spacious and greener. Sarrià and Mount Tibidabo are quiet, pleasant and green, but far from everything. If the purpose of your visit is not only the city, but also swimming, look for accommodation not in tiny Barceloneta, but closer to the beaches of Nova Icària, Bogatell or even Llevant - there are fewer people the water is cleaner, and the pareo and mojito vendors are less intrusive.

Hotels in Barcelona and surroundings:

  • Hotel Brummell
  • Hotel Regina
  • The Corner Hotel
  • U232
  • Continental Palacete
  • Casa Vaganto
  • Calipolis , Sitges
  • Ceferino , Vilanova i la Geltrú
  • Llar de Capitans , Ocata
  • Mastinell , Vilafranca del Penedès
  • Vilar Rural de Cardona
Hotel Brummell U232 Hotel Casa Vaganto Cava & Hotel Mastinell

If you are flying by the sea, and you are thinking of going to the city a couple of times or not at all, feel free to book a hotel or apartment in one of the coastal towns on the Costa Brava or Costa Daurada. Prices depend on the remoteness of the place from Barcelona and the housing itself from the sea. The Russian community traditionally lives and vacations in Lloret del Mar, and if that's something you avoid, try Calella or Vilanova i la Geltrú and the surrounding area from they can reach Barcelona in just an hour.

It is important to dedicate a separate paragraph to Airbnb. Due to the influx of tourists, it is very difficult for owners of apartments in Barcelona to obtain a license for short-term rental housing. Most apartments on Airbnb are rented without a license, that is, illegally. Often they turn a blind eye to this, but if the neighbors write a complaint, there may be a showdown with the police. Ideally, you should check with the owner of the apartment or tourist apartments whether they have a license.

Barcelona, ​​food and children: what is important to know?

Most restaurants are open for lunch (13:00-16:00) and dinner (20:00-23:00) and are closed at other times. Keep this in mind when planning your day. Fast food and small cafes with pastries and sandwiches work from morning to evening without a break. Restaurants almost never have children's rooms, while there is a children's menu, but often it consists of nuggets, potatoes, pasta - favorite children's dishes. If the child is allergic, and there is no list of allergens in the menu, do not hesitate to arrange an interrogation with a predilection for the waiter. During it, you will learn that bocadillo vegetal is a sandwich with tuna and egg (vegetables are also present in small quantities there), that the ensaimada round bun (ensaimada) and the normal croissant (normal) are cooked in pork fat (there is an alternative - oily croissant de mantequilla), that by nueces many people understand only walnuts, and not nuts at all, that salmorejo tomato soup is like gazpacho, but with bread crumbs - and much more that allergy sufferers, vegetarians and people with celiac disease need to know.

Canned baby food, cereals and mixtures can be bought at pharmacies and almost any supermarket. Pay attention to the composition: manufacturers often like to add honey to porridge, sugar to yogurt, and starch to puree. In Spain, there are almost no mono-component vegetable or meat purees, and if you are just starting to introduce complementary foods, then it may be easier to bring jars with you. An alternative option is compact steamers-choppers or pedagogical complementary foods.

If you are breastfeeding, feel free to do so wherever you feel comfortable: in a museum, cafe, bus or park bench. It is unlikely that someone will condemn you, you can not even wrap yourself in a scarf.

Children and Barcelona: where to go?

There are many nice parks in Barcelona - it would be good luck to settle near one of them. You can admire the seasonal flowering of some southern plants, have picnics or hide from the heat. The most central and crowded is Ciutadella Park. It has a zoo and a pond where you can rent a boat. At the exit of Sants station there is a small park where there is a huge iron slide in the form of a dragon. In the park "Laberint Horta" (Parc del Laberint d'Horta) there is a real labyrinth, and in the park of Cervantes there is an incredibly beautiful rose garden. In the Oreneta Park (Parc del Castell de l'Oreneta), children from the age of one can ride the children's railway, and in the Creueta del Coll Park, they can splash in the outdoor pool. Almost every park has playgrounds and drinking fountains.

Creueta del Coll Parc del Castell de l'Oreneta

Montjuic is a day trip. You can go on a tour of the Olympic Stadium, visit the National Art Museum of Catalonia (MNAC) or the CaixaForum gallery, take a walk in the botanical garden or cactus park and climb to the castle of St. George. Another Barcelona mountain - Tibidabo - is interesting not so much for the Temple of the Sacred Heart, but for a small but pretty amusement park. And for serious attractions, you need to go to the giant amusement park Port Aventura and spend a whole day there, or better two.

What to watch and show to a child in Barcelona?

If it's hot, cold or wet, you don't have to stay in a hotel. Almost at opposite ends of Barcelona are two excellent science museums: the interactive modern CosmoCaixa and the slightly less advanced but no less interesting Museum of Natural Sciences (Museu Blau). In the Museum of Musical Instruments at the concert hall L’Auditori, you can make plenty of noise, in the Maritime Museum you can explore different boats, and in the huge Aquarium you can watch fish. All the usual museums and attractions are also available to parents with children. You can go to any museum with a baby in a stroller or a backpack, most often they have elevators and ramps, and if not, do not hesitate to call security for help.

Good to know: The best European museums for children


There is always something going on in Barcelona, ​​for money and for free. Announcements of festivals, concerts, performances and markets can be found on the sites of local observers like the general Time Out or the children's Mammaproof, on the website of the Barcelona City Hall or in the booklets of the Center Civic district "houses of culture". Theaters and concert halls such as Liceu, L'Auditori and Palau de la Música Catalana often put on morning performances for families with children, this is called concierto familiar. By the way, you can also come with children to music festivals like the famous Primavera or Sonar. Just remember to buy special headphones or earplugs for your child.

Around Barcelona you can find surf spots (Sitges and Castelldefels), paddleboarding courses, riding clubs, kayaking classes and rope camps. If the weather is bad, you can throw out energy in chiqui park - soft towns with trampolines, slides and pools with balls.

During the summer, many children and teenagers are sent to casals d'estiu camps. They are ordinary and thematic, for example, a surf camp in Castelldefels or Sitges. It is worth signing up for a shift in advance, many camps open registration in April. Children are entertained there from morning to lunch, and they return home for dinner and at night.

How to survive the trip and enjoy it?

First, follow the safety rules. Carry water with you at all times - one bottle per family member - and some change so you can buy water even in shops that don't accept cards. Be sure to use sunscreen and wear hats - this also applies to the smallest. Buy your child a covered bathing suit and go to the beach with an umbrella or a tent. Before the trip, study the insurance: its coverage, where the medical centers are located, write down the phone numbers. 112 is the only number to call in an emergency.

Important to know: Sun protection guide: how to properly use cosmetics with SPF

Second, set your Zen to max. Children have their own opinions and desires, and they do not always coincide with yours. Bribery and blackmail may not be the best pedagogical methods, but buy this balloon for your child in exchange for half an hour in the Sagrada Familia. Negotiate, give in, praise and reward.

Thirdly, do not neglect the means at hand. Even if your toddler has been walking on his own since a year, he is unlikely to endure 15,000 steps through the historic center. A stroller, sling, hipseat or backpack will increase the movement range of your heroes. Many children are afraid to go to public toilets, which are almost non-existent in Barcelona - take a collapsible potty with you. Don't forget snacks and small fun things like crayons or soap bubbles.

Finally, don't be afraid or shy! Catalans love children and will not look askance or make comments, even if your offspring are running barefoot on the subway car, eating dirt, throwing tantrums on the floor in the art gallery, or lying in a stroller without a hat and socks at plus 25. Deciding to travel with a child , you have already done half the battle, it remains only to stock up on patience and love and enjoy your vacation.


Publication date 06/05/2019

Anastasia Solomina


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Date of publication 06/14/2018

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Date of publication 05/30/2018

Wine, girls, heroism.

How the Soviet military fought for Spain | History | Society

Georgy Zotov

Estimated reading time: 10 minutes


1937 Spain. Madrid. Internationalist volunteers Vladimir Puzeikin (left) and his fighting friend Pyotr Shevtsov took part in the national revolutionary war of the Spanish people. Pyotr Shevtsov was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on October 22, 1937 for his courage in Spain. He died in January 1944 during the Great Patriotic War. RIA Novosti

“It is a tradition here to drink wine with meals. There is always a lot of wine in our canteens. At first, our people allowed themselves too much,” one of the aviation commissars writes in a report to Moscow, calling alcohol a “big threat” for Soviet pilots in Spain.

Another Soviet commissar (already of a tank battalion) testifies that he had not previously suspected that the Spaniards were allowed brothels. “I should note that many of our comrades did not immediately understand how shameful it was to be in brothels. Until December 3, about 20 people arbitrarily visited prostitutes. After the ban on visits to brothels by the party staff, discipline increased sharply. Komsomolets Morkevich offered one woman 200 pesetas, she refused and complained to the Anti-Fascist Committee. The unstable Morkevich was then unanimously condemned at the Komsomol meeting.

In total, 1,811 military advisers and specialists from the USSR passed through the “Spanish Front”, 189 of this number died, died of wounds or went missing. 59 servicemen were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union for their bravery, many posthumously.

Yan Karlovich Berzin. Photo: RIA Novosti

Mess and indifference

The USSR sent the first military cargoes to Spain in the fall of 1936, when the troops of putschist Franco rushed to Madrid. The weapons were transported by sea, in the strictest secrecy. Some ships were disguised as tourist liners - “tourists” in panama hats roamed the decks in crowds, defiantly photographing seascapes. Sailed mainly at night - in order not to become the prey of Italian submarines patrolling the Spanish coast: mode Benito Mussolini openly supported the Spanish rebels. Each vessel had a code designation - the letter Y and the numbers indicating the route. On October 4 and 11, 1936, the first Soviet ships delivered a batch of T-26 tanks to Cartagena, and this saved Madrid from being captured by the Francoists. After that, specialists began to arrive - 772 aviators, 351 tankers, 77 military sailors, 156 signalmen, 130 workers and engineers of aircraft factories.

From the very beginning, chief Soviet military adviser in Spain, army commissar 2nd rank Yan Berzin (acting under the pseudonym "General Donizetti") in a letter to Voroshilov complained about the Spanish indifference and the general mess at the front. “Sometimes my hands itch to pull these bastards out of their offices and put them up against the wall,” writes Berzin. “I could not imagine such unpunished, unrestrained sabotage of necessary measures, such negligence and irresponsibility. Orders are simply not carried out, but sometimes they do the opposite, and remain in their original places.

The Western press greatly inflated the participation of the USSR in the Spanish Civil War, reporting that "whole divisions were being transferred from Moscow", but this was fantasy. Let's say the Italian expeditionary force and the "blackshirt" detachments sent to Spain numbered 98,500 thugs, and 4,500 officers of the Third Reich served in the Condor legion that bombed the city of Guernica. The USSR set itself a different task - not to get involved in a war with all of Europe, but to train "local personnel". After all, the Republican army had no combat experience, and its officers did not even go through the usual exercises.

Battle in a burning tank

Soviet tankers and pilots fought in such a way that residents of the surrounding villages came to look at the "Russian heroes".

October 25 1937 y. On January 17, 1938, Stepanov was shot down and jumped out with a parachute. He was captured by the Francoists, beaten and tortured, but he did not give any information about himself. The pilot was sentenced to death, but six months later Yevgeny was exchanged for a captured German pilot. Less than a year later, the indefatigable Stepanov was already fighting at Khalkhin Gol, shooting down several Japanese aircraft.

Soviet pilots at the Soto airfield near Madrid. 1936 Photo: RIA Novosti

Pilot Mikhail Yakushin destroyed six enemy bombers, for which he received a golden watch and a Chrysler car as a gift from the Spanish government. Another Soviet pilot Anatoly Serov (who fought under the pseudonym Rodrigo Mateo) shot down 15 enemy aircraft on the Central and Aragonese fronts. Both Stepanov and Serov were awarded the highest award for military distinctions - the title of Hero of the Soviet Union.

In 1937, the driver Victor Novikov in the battle near Zaragoza on a burning BT-5 tank crushed two dozen Francoist infantrymen, and then, having brought them to the car to his own location, he lost consciousness from burns. After treatment in a hospital in Barcelona, ​​Novikov was sent home - he also became a Hero of the Soviet Union. The commander of a tank platoon, Lieutenant Sergey Laputin , near the village of Fuentes de Ebro, fired from his wrecked tank for days in a row (!) From the advancing Francoists, holding the defense - and after the ammunition ran out, he managed to escape from the encirclement.

Soviet tankers at the graves of their comrades who died during the Spanish Civil War. 1937 Photo: RIA Novosti

Chopped to pieces

hacked to pieces by Francoist soldiers. Later, during a raid by the Condor Legion, a canvas bale with his remains and a note was dropped on the position of the Republicans near Madrid - "So it will be with every foreigner." From mid 19On the 38th, Soviet officers almost did not participate in hostilities in Spain - Spanish Republicans moved into our tanks and planes. Why? Some historians believe that Joseph Stalin was dissatisfied with the "diversity" of the Spanish government - after all, representatives of different parties were present at the front and in the government - both communists, and socialists, and anarchists, and even Trotskyists cursed in the USSR. Yan Berzin also noted that Soviet officers are shocked to learn that there are different parties in Spain, people can express their opinion and criticize the communists. And of course, the USSR was afraid of a "big fight". After all, if the Soviet Union "fit" into this war with all its strength, the Great Patriotic War could not begin at all at 1941st. And five years earlier.

Soviet cameraman (later - an outstanding documentary filmmaker) Roman Karmen (1906-1978) (center) among the soldiers of the Spanish Republican army. 1936 Photo: RIA Novosti

Stirlitz, milk, party

In March 1939, the last Soviet specialists left Spain. After returning to their homeland, their fate was different.

The head of the "Soviet contingent" Yana Berzin and back in 1937 was recalled to Moscow, accused of "counter-revolutionary Trotskyist activities", and a year later they were shot. His "heirs" in this post in Madrid ( Grigory Stern and Kuzma Kachanov ) were sent to be shot in 1941 - the first for "a Trotskyist conspiracy and espionage in favor of Germany", the second - "for cowardice and unauthorized retreat. " Evgeny Stepanov , who rammed the Italian plane , then fought at Khalkhin Gol and in the Finnish war, after the Great Patriotic War he served as vice president of the International Aviation Federation, died in 1996. Pilot Mikhail Yakushin went through the entire war with Germany from the first to the last day, was wounded. In the fifties he trained pilots in Egypt, died at 1999 year. Air ace Anatoly Serov crashed during a training flight shortly after arriving from Spain - his ashes were buried in the Kremlin wall. Hero-tanker Viktor Novikov went missing in October 1941 during the battles with the Germans near Mogilev. Lieutenant Sergei Laputin in the same 41st was surrounded, went into the forest, partisan with his detachment. He rose to the rank of colonel, was transferred to the reserve in 1960, and died in 1985.

... Now it is clear from the open archives that these were the most ordinary people.

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