Target baby feeder

The evidence for feeding on cue

© 2008 – 2017 Gwen Dewar, Ph.D., all rights reserved

The following article focuses on the newborn feeding schedule. For information related to this topic, see this article about breastfeeding on demand, as well this overview of the science in favor of infant-initiated meals.

Throughout much of the 20th century, Western medical professionals recommended that newborns be fed on a highly-regulated timetable (Fildes 1986).

Today we know better. The scientific evidence strongly suggests that newborns—defined as babies less than one month old—benefit when they are fed frequently and on demand. According to the latest recommendations, that means

(1) initiating feedings when babies show signs of hunger, and

(2) ending feedings when babies show signs of being satiated (i.e., don’t try to force them to finish a bottle).

It also means feeding infants approximately 8-12 times every 24 hours. If that seems like a lot, keep in mind: Our ancestors fed their babies this frequently — even after the newborn stage.

And consider these points:

  • Frequent feedings reduce the time it takes for a mother’s milk to come in. In one study, moms who breastfed newborns every two hours began lactating eat least 24 hours earlier than did moms who breastfed every four hours (Salariya et al 1978).
  • Frequent breastfeeds increase a mother’s prolactin levels, and high prolactin levels are needed to establish an adequate milk supply. In a U.S. study, breastfeeding frequency of about 10 times a day (range: 7-13 times a day) was associated with sufficient milk (de Carvalo et al 1982).
  • Colostrum, the milk produced during the first few days postpartum, is lower in fat and calories than is more mature milk. It is also produced in smaller amounts. A higher-frequency newborn feeding schedule helps babies compensate for the lower caloric density of their milk.
  • Newborns are more likely to thrive when they are fed approximately 8-12 times every 24 hours. Newborns fed this often first weeks of life tend to show greater weight gain at 15 days (De Carvalho et al 1983) and six weeks (Casiday et al 2004) postpartum.

So much for the frequency of feedings. Why is it also important to feed a newborn “on demand,” i.e., according to a schedule determined by the newborn’s cues of hunger? 

  • Newborns differ in sucking strength, and this affects how rapidly they empty a breast or bottle (e.g., Pollitt et al 1978). As a result, some babies require longer feeding bouts than others. This is especially true for the lower birth weight baby and the premature baby–both of whom may lack the strength to suck effectively (Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences 1991).
  • Newborns vary greatly in the amount of milk (or formula) they consume during a single feed (e.g., Pollitt et al 1978). As a result, some babies require more frequent feedings to achieve the same daily caloric intake. A demand-style newborn feeding schedule permits babies to adjust to their individual circumstances.
  • Adult-led, scheduled feedings have been linked with poorer, long-term academic outcomes. Researchers tracking more than 10,000 children from infancy have found that babies fed on a schedule at 4 weeks of age had lower cognitive and academic scores in later years (Iacovou and Sevilla 2013).

But what about overfeeding? Won’t babies consume too much if we let them feed as long as they want?

The short answer is no.

Studies suggest that overfeeding isn’t a problem for breastfed infants. 

In fact, breastfed infants tend to develop a better ability to self-regulate food intake (Lin et al 2010).

Moreover, babies consume much less than is potentially on offer. Between days 6-10 postpartum, breastfeeding mothers are capable of producing an average of 1200 g of milk per day. But their babies drink far less than this–only 500-700 g/day (Casey et al. , 1986; Saint et al., 1984). 

And overfeeding among bottle-fed newborns? That appears to depend on whether or not caregivers encourage infants to empty their bottles.

When we push infants to finish a bottle, we may be teaching them to override their own, internal sensations of satiety — training them to keep feeding even after their hunger subsides.

So it’s important to pay attention to your baby’s interest, and stop feeding when your baby indicates he or she is no longer hungry. 

Common signs for babies under the age of 4 months include waving the arms; turning the head or body away from the bottle; spitting out formula; making negative facial expressions; falling asleep; and pushing away the bottle (Ventura et al 2015).

A good rule of thumb is to stop feeding after the baby has refused the bottle three times in a row (Ventura and Menella 2017). 

Altogether, this  sort of evidence has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to  denounce the adult-imposed, regimented newborn feeding schedule as “clearly harmful or ineffective” (WHO 1998).

And the American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to feed newborns “whenever they show signs of hunger,” or approximately 8-12 times every 24-hours (Work Group on Breastfeeding 1997).

Going overboard: Waking exhausted mothers who are recovering from childbirth?

Some maternity wards have a policy of waking mothers to breastfeed once every 3 hours. Because mothers are subjected to other interruptions as well — by people performing medical tests, hospital administrative duties, and janitorial tasks — this can leave mothers with very little time to sleep before they are awakened by yet another visitor.

Given the physical stress and sleeplessness associated with childbirth–and the risks that sleeplessness pose for the development of postpartum depression (Okun 2016)–is such a policy justified?

I’ve seen no evidence for it, and it’s certainly not “natural,” not if by that you mean “consistent with what humans do in the absence of hospital care.”

For example, contemporary hunter-gatherers–whose lifeways most closely resemble those of our ancestors–nurse their babies 2-4 times an hour (Konner 2006). But even they recognize the needs of mothers who have just given birth.

The common pattern in hunter-gatherer societies is to let mothers to recuperate for the first 24 hours. If the baby is hungry and the mother is asleep, somebody else nurses the baby.

Are there lessons here for us? I think so.

Yes, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for success. Yes, mothers need to nurse frequently to stimulate production of mature milk, and ensure adequate milk supply. 

But I can find no evidence that families suffer when exhausted mothers are allowed at least one 4-hour stretch of postpartum recovery sleep.

In a survey comparing the perceptions of new mothers and maternity ward staff, this was the one area in which staff seemed out of touch with mothers’ needs:  Staff underestimated how important it was for recovering mothers to receive help with nighttime child care (Valbø et al 2011).

Although feeding practices vary worldwide, the international medical establishment is in general agreement. These recommendations are endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO 1998), La Leche League, and the American Academy of Pediatrics (Work Group on Breastfeeding 1997):

Reject an adult-imposed newborn feeding schedule that denies your baby frequent opportunities to feed

As noted above, newborns flourish when they are fed approximately 8-12 times a day.

Feed when baby when he or she shows early signs of hunger

Each newborn is different. Some may feel hungry every 30 minutes. Others may be fine with much longer intervals between feedings. Be sensitive to your baby’s hunger cues (Shloim et al 2017). These include

  • Rooting (searching for a breast)
  • Hand-sucking and hand-to-mouth movements
  • Increased alertness or restlessness

Don’t wait for your newborn to cry. Crying is a late sign of hunger, and once a newborn begins crying it may take time for him to settle down and feed.

Don’t restrict time at the breast (or bottle)

This may prevent your baby from taking in enough calories. If you’re breastfeeding, a strictly-timed newborn feeding schedule may also deprive your baby of high-fat hind milk. Read more here.

Don’t try to encourage a baby to finish a bottle

As noted above, that may simply teach your baby bad habits. If your baby rejects the bottle three times in a row, that’s a sign that you should stop trying to feed (Ventura and Menella 2017).

Sleep or feed?

The American Academy of Pediatrics advises parents to awaken sleeping newborns if they haven’t fed for four hours or more. But the AAP offers no evidence in favor of this idea, and it’s not clear to me if any such evidence exists. 

Watch the diaper count

By the fourth or fifth day postpartum, newborns should urinate at least six wet diapers a day. Urine should be clear or pale yellow. If your newborn is urinating less frequently–or is producing urine that is dark yellow or orange–your baby is probably not getting enough milk. Try increasing the frequency of feedings, and consult your pediatrician.

Watch your baby’s weight (and don’t panic)

Newborns lose weight after delivery, and breastfed babies lose more weight than do bottle-fed babies (Martens and Romphf 2007). This isn’t surprising, since new mothers produce very little milk in the first few days after birth. In one study of American breastfed newborns, more than half the babies lost at least 5% of their birth weight in the first three days postpartum (Dewey et al 2003).

But physicians say that weight loss should stop by around five days of age. By one to two weeks, most newborns have regained their birth weights. Again, check with your pediatrician to make sure that your baby’s weight gains are on target.

For more details, download the American Academy of Pediatrics’ paper on breastfeeding and the newborn feeding schedule.

References: The newborn feeding schedule

Nutrition during lactation (1991) is an excellent resource for parents who want detailed information about the newborn feeding schedule and other breastfeeding issues. It is available online. For more information regarding the newborn feeding schedule, see these publications (cited in the article above):

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1997. Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. Pediatrics 100 (6): 1035-1039.

Casiday RE, Wright Cm, Panter-Brick C, and Parkinson KN. 2004. Do early infant feeding patterns relate to breast-feeding continuation and weight gain? Data from a longitudinal cohort study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 58(9): 1290-1296.

Casey CE, M.R. Neifert MR, Seacat JM, and Neville MC. 1986. Nutrient intake by breastfed infants during the first five days after birth. Am. J. Dis. Child. 140:933-936.

de Carvalho M., Robertson S, Merkatz R, and Klaus M. 1982. Milk intake and frequency of feeding in breastfed infants. Early Hum. Dev. 7:155-163.

Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ, and Cohen RJ. 2003. Risk Factors for Suboptimal Infant Breastfeeding Behavior, Delayed Onset of Lactation, and Excess Neonatal Weight Loss. Pediatrics 112: 607-619.

Fildes VA. Breasts, bottles and babies. 1986. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Freeman V, van’t Hof M, and Haschke F. 2000. Patterns of milk and food intake in infants from birth to age 36 months: the Euro-growth study. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 31 Suppl 1:S76-85.

Huffman SL et al. 1987. Suckling Patterns and Post-partum Amenorrhea in Bangladesh. Journal of Biosocial Science, 19:171

Iacovou M and Sevilla A. 2013. Infant feeding: the effects of scheduled vs. on-demand feeding on mothers’ wellbeing and children’s cognitive development. Eur J Public Health. 23(1):13-9.

Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. 1991. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Kaucher M, E.Z. Moyer EZ, Richards AJ, Williams HH, Wertz AL, and Macy IG. 1945. Human milk studies. XX. The diet of lactating women and the collection and preparation of food and human milk for analysis. Am. J. Dis. Child. 70:142-147.

Konner M. 2005. Hunter-gatherer infancy and childhood: The !Kung and others. In: Hunter-gatherer childhoods: Evolutionary, developmental and cultural perpectives. BS Hewlett and ME Lamb (eds). New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Li R, Fein SB, Grummer-Strawn LM. 2010. Do infants fed from bottles lack self-regulation of milk intake compared with directly breastfed infants? Pediatrics. 125(6):e1386-93.

Maisels MJ, Vain N, Acquavita AM, de Blanco NV, Cohen A and DiGregorio, J. 1994. The Effect of Breast-Feeding Frequency on Serum Bilirubin Levels. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 170(3):880-883.

Manz F, van’t Hof MA, and Haschke F. 1999. The mother-infant relationship: Who controls breastfeeding? Lancet 353: 1152.

Martens PJ and Romphf L. 2007. Factors associated with newborn in-hospital weight loss: comparisons by feeding method, demographics, and birthing procedures. J Hum Lact.23(3):233-41, quiz 242-5.

Okechukwu and Okolo 2006. Exclusive breastfeeding frequency during the first seven days of life in term neonates. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 13(4): 309-312.

Okun ML. 2016. Disturbed Sleep and Postpartum Depression. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 18(7):66.

Pollitt E, Gilmore M, and Valcarcel M. 1978. The stability of sucking behavior and its relationship to intake during the first month of life. Infant Behav. Dev. 1:347-357.

Saint L, Smith M, and Hartmann PE. 1984. The yield and nutrient content of colostrum and milk of women giving birth to 1 month post-partum. Br. J. Nutr. 52:87-95.

Salariya EM, Easton PM and Cater JI. 1978. Duration of breastfeeding after early inititation of frequent feeding. Lancet 2 (8100): 1141-1143.

Shloim N, Vereijken CMJL, Blundell P, Hetherington MM. 2017. Looking for cues – infant communication of hunger and satiation during milk feeding. Appetite 108:74-82.

Valbø A, Iversen HH, Kristoffersen M. 2011. Postpartum care: evaluation and experience among care providers and care receivers. J Midwifery Womens Health. 56(4):332-9.

Ventura AK, Inamdar LB, Mennella JA. 2015. Consistency in infants’ behavioural signalling of satiation during bottle-feeding. Pediatr Obes. 10(3):180-7.

Ventura AK, Mennella JA. 2017. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants’ Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding. Child Obes. 13(1):44-52.

Whitehead RG, Rowland MGM, Hutton MA, Prentice AM, Muller EM, and Paul AA. 1978. Factors Influencing Lactation Performance in Rural Gambian Mothers. Lancet ii: 178 – 181.

The World Health Organization, 1998. Postpartum care for mother and newborn: report of a technical working group.

Worthman CM and Melby M. 2002. Toward a comparative developmental ecology of human sleep. In: Adolescent Sleep Patterns: Biological, Social, and Psychological Influences, M.A. Carskadon (ed). New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 69-117.

Yamauchi Y and Yamauchi I. 1990. Breast-feeding frequency during the first 24 hours after birth in full-term neonates. Pediatrics 86: 171-175.

Written content of “The newborn feeding schedule” last modified 9/2017

Image credits for “The newborn feeding schedule”

image of father feeding newborn cropped from a photo by istock / fiorigianluigi

How To Make Them & When Babies Can Have Them


Oscar Wong/Moment/Getty Images

These might save you when your baby is teething.

by Grace Gallagher

Pregnancy and parenting cause you to put all sorts of seemingly unrelated words together: there’s lightning crotch, diaper blowout, and now breast milk popsicles. Yep, you can turn pretty much any liquid into a popsicle, so it makes sense that frozen breast milk pops are a thing, and if you’ve never heard of them before, they may just be your new savior. From soothing gums that are sore thanks to teething, to feeding a baby who only wants the boob, or introducing baby’s first solids, breast milk popsicles are helpful in many ways. Here we’ll break down everything you’ll want to know about breast milk popsicles.

What is a breast milk popsicle?

A breast milk popsicle is pretty much exactly what it sounds like — frozen breast milk in a stick or a mold that the baby can hold and suck on.

“Breast milk popsicles are an excellent cold therapy tool and healthy infant snack,” Demi Lucas, IBCLC and senior patient coordinator at The Lactation Network tells Romper. While they’re commonly used for teething babies with irritated gums and sore mouths, Lucas says you can also use them to introduce children to the flavors of solids, by mixing solids with breast milk. “

Sick infants and children can benefit from the immunological properties of breast milk, while the cold aspect is soothing to their gums and mouths. Additionally, infants and toddlers who struggle to take a bottle or sippy cup can snack on milk popsicles while away from their lactating parents as a way to still get breast milk.” So if your little one is refusing a bottle, a popsicle could do the trick (and allow the lactating parent to sneak away for a bit).

How to make breast milk popsicles

Breast milk popsicles are not much more complicated to make than a bottle. “Of course, start with proper food handling techniques by washing the milk popsicle container in a separate basin (not directly in the sink) with a brush or sponge intended solely for infant feeding items. Dry with a clean towel or air dry,” Lucas says.

Younger babies or those who do not have teeth can use an infant food feeder; these are closed molds typically with silicone covers that have small holes (like this set of two from Target). Lucas says that using these (vs. an open popsicle mold) reduces the possibility of choking, and the cold silicone feels soothing on the baby's gums.

When it’s time to make the popsicle, just pull a bag of frozen breast milk out of the freezer. Then, Lucas explains, “using a butter knife, carefully chop off small pieces of frozen milk and put them inside the silicone food feeder. Put the remainder of the frozen milk back into the freezer. You'll probably need to hold the feeder for your baby if they are younger. Let them suck and chew on the breast milk popsicle.”

If your baby is familiar with solids, you can try mixing fresh breast milk with avocado, fruit (bananas and berries work well) or other foods they like, then freezing it all together. An open mold popsicle holder (one that makes pops they put directly in their mouths) works well for older kids.

While experimenting with adding different foods to the pop can be a fun way to introduce new tastes, Lucas cautions not to add honey to the popsicle mixture for infants under age 1.

When can babies have breast milk popsicles?

If your baby can take a bottle or breast, you can give them a breast milk popsicle, just make sure to use a closed mold for infants and carefully watch them.

“As long as you're using a silicone infant feeder, there's no minimum age. An open mold should only be used with older children, and they should be assessed for choking risk,” Lucas says. “As with any feeding, all babies and toddlers should be actively supervised.”

If you have a teething, cranky baby, a breast milk popsicle may just be your new breast friend (sorry). And if your baby is refusing a bottle, a pop is worth a try.

Rest assured that the milk still has benefits, even when it’s frozen. “Freezing (and boiling, by comparison) can kill off some of the living properties in breast milk, but breast milk benefits are still extremely powerful and bioavailable in the frozen form,” Lucas says.

Milk and food storage containers, baby dishes

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What means for feeding a newborn will be useful in your life?

Many parents would agree that raising newborns is no small challenge. Even when this is not the first child in the family, kids have to devote a lot of their time and take care not only of developmental activities, but also of his good nutrition. In this case, you can take a breath with about

It is very important for all parents that the child receives a healthy and wholesome diet, but it must be taken into account that this depends not only on what is included in the products, but also in what the children's food is stored and served.

Breast milk bags and containers

Is your baby breastfed but sometimes you need to go away? Or maybe you have too much breast milk? Then in these cases, high-quality and convenient milk bags and containers will help you out , with which you can freeze and store breast milk for a long time. These devices are made of environmentally friendly and safe materials, so you can be sure that the beneficial properties of your milk will not be spoiled. These containers and pouches include: Philips Avent Breast Milk Storage Bags, Tommee Tippee Closer to Nature Breast Milk Bags, BabyOno Breast Milk Cooling and Storage Bags, Nuby Milk Container with Lid, MAM Storage Solution Milk Preservation Cup. nine0170

Baby tableware

Is your baby getting older and it's time to introduce complementary foods? Or maybe he already wants to eat on his own? Then it's time for you to think about choosing high-quality children's tableware. To date, provides a wide selection of dishes for babies , You can purchase both a ready-made set of children's dishes, and all separately. Most often, from 6 months, babies are given cereals and vegetable purees, so you need a convenient plate. Now manufacturers offer different types of children's plates, for example, deep or shallow, suction plates, plates with lids, thermo-plates, plates with several compartments, warming plates and plates with cutlery on your wishes and preferences.

Among all types of plates, plastic plates with suction cups are especially popular, as children cannot knock them over and stain themselves and everything around. But, and if you bought a simple plate, then you can buy a quality one for it natural rubber table mat Hevea or Summer Infant Tiny Diner , which also protect the plate from slipping and tipping over.

When buying cutlery for feeding, pay special attention to the material of manufacture. Initially, you only need a spoon and it is best if it is made of silicone so that the child cannot injure himself. Later, when the child is older, plastic and stainless steel cutlery can be used . In addition, you can purchase spoons and forks with temperature indicator , which change color if the food is too hot.

Also, baby utensils includes a device such as educational device designed to feed the baby with solid food. These attachments include: Kidsme Food Feeder, CLEVAMAMA ClevaFeed, Canpol Feeding Net, Nuby Nibbler .

Food Containers

In today's world, many parents of young children are very active, so they often have to prepare meals for several meals and feed their children outside the home. To do this, in order for the food to retain its freshness and usefulness, manufacturers of children's goods offer to purchase high-quality food storage containers . If you need containers for storing and transporting food and products, then we recommend choosing the following products: Philips Avent food storage containers, Clevamama thermo-container for food storage, Miniland ECO airtight container for children, Twistshake mix storage utensils and other high-quality and convenient containers of well-known manufacturers.

If you want to buy baby feeding utensils or containers, we recommend that you familiarize yourself with our wide range. We offer quality products of well-known and proven over the years manufacturers of high quality, different sizes, colors and at affordable prices. nine0003

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Adult problems of “children's” brands. What is needed to create a successful brand for children

There are many classic Western “children's” brands that are also sold in our country - Kinder Surprise, Nesquik, Happy Meal and many others. At the same time, every year the number of Ukrainian TMs focused on children is growing. This is an indicator of the stabilization of the economic situation in the country, although it is too early to talk about the final saturation of the market and its formation. What should a manufacturer understand before addressing a children's target audience? What should he know if he decided to produce a “children's” brand? nine0168

The consumption of food for children and adolescents in the United States is estimated at 147 billion dollars annually. Of these, about 8.5 billion American children spend on their own every year. The fact that spending by Ukrainian children is much more modest in absolute terms cannot in any way diminish their importance as consumers and should not in any way diminish the importance and need for “children's” brands for Ukrainian children.

Respect for the target audience

One of the main problems of “children's” branding is a fuzzy understanding of who the brand is aimed at. Since, as a rule, one audience pays for children's products, and another audience directly or indirectly stimulates the purchase and consumes the product. The main misconception of manufacturers of products for children is that most of them rely on adults, they say, parents pay anyway. It cannot be discounted that the main consumer of children's products is a child. You need to study his needs, ask what he likes, what he doesn't like, talk with them. nine0003

Unfortunately, there is practically no data on the Ukrainian market about the reasons for the child's loyalty, about his interaction with adults during the purchase, about who influences the purchase to what extent - the child or the parent.

What is the target audience for children?

Children's target audience is a flexible concept. Every year for a child is new knowledge, new skills, a new level of development. Therefore, the age segmentation of the children's audience is narrower than that of adults. There are several options for segmenting children. nine0003

From birth to 3 years: All advertising for children of this age, of course, is directed at parents, the main communication takes place with them, which is natural, since a child at this age, due to speech characteristics, cannot formulate needs, he does not often located at points of sale. Although three years can be attributed to this category already with a stretch. During research, we asked moms at what age a child begins to express their wishes in relation to a variety of product categories - from the taste of their favorite juice to trousers and T-shirts that they are ready to wear. The most common response was 2-3 years. That. mothers themselves testify that three years is the period when the child begins to realize and formulate his needs. nine0003

3-6 years old - Preschool: Preschoolers are children who are largely dependent on their parents. The child at this time goes to the kindergarten, where he is forced to spend time in a team of certain children, is forced to communicate with the children of his parents' friends. At this age, a child perceives a lot through the prism of his family. The heroes of children's brands that position themselves for children of this age group are more childish, animated.

First graders: School. A child's going to first grade is a lot of stress, equivalent to the stress that a child experiences when his parents divorce. A child from a wonderful world, where much is possible, finds himself in a world of continuous conventions. At school, you need to do everything as the teacher said, and no one explains why. During this period, the child behaves in a special way. That is why, when we conduct research with this age group, we try not to cross first-graders with older children. In the second grade, the child is already like an “old-timer” soldier. He gets used to the school environment and selects the most appropriate model of behavior in the classroom, school. From this moment, a lot in the life of the child is determined by his environment, the group of peers. nine0003

7-10 years old - elementary school students, 10-12 years old - younger teenagers: At this age, children balance between parents, school and peers, so the child is influenced by three environments. For many children's brands, ten-year-olds are the upper age limit for their audience. We see how after 10 years the child begins to grow up rapidly, which is reflected in his desires and preferences. If we talk about what unites these two age groups, then this is a subconscious desire not only to “have fun” through the possession of a product / brand, but also a cognitive and educational aspect - to learn something new for yourself, gain new skills...

12-16 years: Adolescents with all the ensuing consequences. Communication with friends and peers and “acceptance” by this society comes to the fore for them. Speaking about the peculiarities of age, psychologists often mention the so-called "teenage complex" - this is a combination of seemingly incongruous things in the character of a teenager. A teenager can be very sensitive to other people's assessment of their appearance, abilities, and at the same time be extremely arrogant and categorical in relation to others. nine0003

How to choose the right target audience to address the main message?

Many manufacturers of children's brands claim that their target audience is children 4-10 years old. You can't say it's wrong. Such segmentation has the right to life. It is important for the manufacturer to correctly choose the core of the children's audience to which the communication is directed. After all, a child at four and a child at 10 are two completely different people. If we show a 4-year-old child in a video, a 10-year-old child will turn away, if a 10-year-old child, the kid will not understand. nine0003

In child psychology there is a concept of the near future, when a child looks at older children and sees what he himself will soon be like. The immediate future is the guys older by a year or two. Say, if the core of your target audience is children aged 9-10, then show them an 11-year-old child in advertising messages. It also happens that a company decides to position its product for children from 4 to 12 years old, and in order to interest both the younger and the older, it makes two communication appeals for them. This is not entirely true, because when they see “their” brand in advertising with babies, adult children may turn away from it as “baby”. nine0003

Example: TM “Rastishka”. We see how successfully the brand is positioned for preschoolers. The message that lies in the brand - eat it to grow faster - is very relevant at 4-6 years old. Children at 9-10 years old may already be offended that they are treated like little ones. We heard during research with children from them such an idea that the one who eats and drinks Rastishka is small. And they are already adults!

Gender segmentation

Many manufacturers take into account - along with age segmentation - also the gender difference of audiences. There is a huge difference between boys and girls at 8-12 years old. There are many brands in the world that position themselves as brands only for girls and only for boys. These are toys, and cosmetics, and stationery, and much more. nine0003

Example: “Crayola creations”. This is a brand for girls. There are notebooks for secrets, and various sets for creativity. And all this in pink colors, with flowers, hearts, etc. The slogan used in one of the videos perfectly reflects this strategy - “These are things for girls. The boys are not even allowed to look!”.

Double communication

The emotional part of the brand is its concept, personifying its hero. Packaging should be focused on the child, rationality - on the adult. The mistake many companies make is that they mix two messages in one communication channel. nine0003

Good example: “Red AP”. In all advertising communications - on the label, in the video, billboards - there is communication with the child. And in articles, in advertising, in the press, at meetings, parents are informed about the additional value of the product, the vitamins present in it, etc. Children want to have him, because he is kind, cheerful, various funny adventures happen to him. Parents, in turn, were convinced of its usefulness.

Psychological attitudes to be guided by when creating a children's brand

Game. Playing activity is the leading one in a child up to 11 years old. Everything that is presented in a playful way is easier and more understandable for a child.

Knowledge. The child is interested in everything. The brand should take this into account. Moreover, in an entertaining form, he can be given a variety of information - about the history of mankind, about the planet Earth, about space, etc. A child at this age is interested in everything, even not such global things. So, for example, a number of restaurants, conducting loyalty programs for families with children, arrange excursions to the kitchen for small visitors. The child is told what, how and under what conditions is prepared. Listening to all this with open eyes, the child, of course, will persuade his parents to come to this restaurant again! nine0003

Psychological comfort and security. Children are not free beings. The child understands a lot, but is dependent on the parents. At the same time, integrating with age into the world around him, the child also feels increasing pressure on him from the outside. A brand and a character that represents it can help a child feel more confident. From this, for example, the concept of TM "Frendi" was born. The hero was endowed with the character of a child's assistant. He appears in difficult times and comes to the rescue. Recall one of the commercials. Children rage in the classroom, throw the ball. Suddenly the teacher comes in and the ball flies right at her. At this time, one of the boys drinks "Frendy". And then Friendy rushes forward and intercepts the ball. The teacher did not notice anything, all the children sigh with relief - Frendy helped them out in difficult times. nine0003

Situation and the need for friendship. With the age of the child, his need for friendly relations with peers increases. At the same time, the child is forced to situationally see among his friends those with whom he studies or lives in the same yard. The hero of the brand can become that virtual friend with whom the child can fulfill his or her expectations in fantasy. You can share secrets with him, consult, communicate.

The material side of the issue

Creating a children's brand is relatively more expensive than a similar adult brand. This is obvious: the product itself requires higher quality ingredients, its small packaging, its often more complex packaging and the added value of toys and small prizes inside, plus high communication costs. Two situational advertising campaigns a year are clearly not enough - the life of the "children's" brand is more dynamic. But, on the other hand, with the right strategy, you can earn more on “children's” brands. nine0003

What should be the children's brand?

Consider the different aspects of creating a brand.

Product. What is a product? What the child eats or drinks, firstly, should please him. At the same time, children's perception of many products differs from that of adults. Because children like - more/less sweetness, thick/liquid consistency, whether they like additives, what additives they like, if there are fillers, what color, taste, in what proportion with the main composition of the product, etc. At the same time, the product itself can also be an object for the game. nine0003


Cookies in the shape of animals. For which of the parents did this not become a reason to communicate with the child?

Vitamins “Vita-bol”. Made like round chewing gums, they will obviously appeal to a child more than tablets.

"Orange chocolate" - chocolate from Kraft Foods, made in the shape of an orange. It is both round and orange, but chocolate.

Packaging. Again, we recall the psychological expectations of the child. You can play with packaging! Even when the manufacturer himself does not encourage children to do this, if the packaging is bright and original, children tend to use it after consuming the product - they cut out pictures, make pen and pencil holders, bird feeders out of them. Knowing about this tendency, you can come up with many ideas to make children want to buy a product more often, not only for its own sake, but also for the sake of cool packaging. nine0003

Example 1: Amurol Confections produced a tube of chewing gum that could be hung around the neck on a bright neon colored string. The chewing gum itself was squeezed directly into the mouth from this tube.

Example 2: Elf Graham crackers are placed in a package that, after the product has been consumed, can be used to play puppet theater. She just puts on her hand like a puppet man.

Place of sale. Manufacturers have already remembered that products for children should be placed at eye level. But the fact that they need to be singled out and separated somehow is forgotten. Recall, for example, how glazed curds were thrown out in supermarkets. Even for an adult it is difficult to figure out which is which. And if the same cardboard box is interesting and brightly decorated? nine0003

Promotion. Children's actions should be held more often and more intensively. Promotions should be unexpected and memorable. We must not forget that children love recognition of their talent. It is important for a child to share the victory. After all, it's simple! Send children letters from the hero, praise the child.

Hero. The key to product development for children is the creation of a character. Moreover, often the loyalty of the child is caused not so much by the product itself, as by the hero. For teenagers, the hero is no longer so important. There fashion chips are more important. For other age categories, a hero is needed. nine0003

One of the main requirements for a hero is anthropomorphism. If the hero does not resemble a person, he will not evoke emotional attachment in the child. Thus, if it is a cat, then it must stand on two legs, if it is a bun, it must still have arms and legs. The hero gives the child a model of behavior. Children copy heroes, learn from them. Often they use the hero of a child and an adult or several heroes.


“Open the world from Will”. The Hero of Will is always with the dog.

The hero is not interesting to the child if he does not have his own history. If the hero is a static drawing, there is no interest in him.

Director of children's videos Alexander Voitetsky

ZR: As you know, children and animals are the most problematic groups. Secrets of working with children and animals?

Alexander Voitetsky: The most problematic people in advertising are customers. Everything else is rubbish compared to them.

I won't say anything about animals... All the time I've only photographed cows and dogs.

Working with children... Yes. SOMETIMES difficult, but there are no special secrets here.

I would say there are little tricks. But it all depends, again, on the client and his budget. If the budget allows, the director takes on the shooting of children - understudies. While the “first cast” (main characters) is resting (eating, sleeping, etc.), rehearsals, setting up the light, setting up the props are carried out with the help of understudies. Their fee is less than that of the main actors, but the work is no less honorable, because. without them, the band would have been 100 times harder. nine0003

“ЗР”: What are the difficulties and “charms” of working with child models? Major mistakes and how to avoid them?

Alexander Voitetsky: I can't say about all the children, because, for example, I never photographed newborns. My age limit is from 4 to 12 years old.

Difficulties are exactly the same as with the “model-bowls”.

In fact, if we consider the process of shooting a video, then, of course, they choose and offer the client a director who has repeatedly filmed children before, does not suffer from rabies, suffers from Tourette's syndrome, and so on. Therefore, there are no situations for a long time when the director, at the sight of children, fell into a stupor and tried to commit suicide. To make it clearer... the director just has to LOVE children! Like, for example, Yaroslav Chevazhevsky or Valentin Kozlovsky, Vasily Chiginsky (no offense to everyone else, but these are the directors with whom I shot children). nine0003

There are no mistakes here and cannot be... It is absolutely forbidden to raise one's voice at children. They must be constantly encouraged, praised, entertained, even if they do everything wrong. An important detail. It is necessary to find a common language with parents (mainly with mothers), because. they have their own, sometimes very useful, influence on their own child. The director himself must become a child during the filming of children.

Difficulties... If we take children-models (mostly girls), then the biggest difficulty is whims. They are already spoiled by attention, they are already spoiled by “glory”... Therefore, they can afford to be capricious. The director turns white from this, breaks out in a cold sweat, but remains within the bounds of decency. nine0003

Sometimes (it is always better to do this, but the estimate does not always allow) it is necessary to take the so-called. back-up, that is, the second couple (or one child), also approved by the client, in case the first composition becomes complex or starts to “star” (from the word “star”).

It often happens that at the casting, at the very beginning of filming, during rehearsals, the child is sane. But as soon as the “motor” command sounds and the camera starts working, he (the child) falls into a state of stupor, from which, sometimes, he cannot be brought out either by gifts, or cakes, or lemonade ... He would be happy to act in film, but his eyes automatically they begin to fumble around the pavilion in search of their mother, which the director does not need at all ... And it’s good if the mother, who will be put right under the camera, can make life easier for the little actor ...

There were times when children were simply carried away from the set in hysterics. There were cases when, having applied around the pavilion while the light was on, and having rehearsed, the child was found sleeping behind the scenery at the very moment when it was necessary to start filming.

Valya Kozlovsky filmed a 5-year-old kindergarten group until 4 in the morning, which, in addition to hysterical cries praising the advertised product, had to drink this product in every take. .. The shot started at 8 pm and ended at 4 am. By that time, mothers and grandmothers were sleeping peacefully in the neighboring rooms of the kindergarten. The actors drank a liter, if not more, of milk. But at the same time they were cheerful and alive ... Why? Because the director at this time himself became them! He drank this milk with them, told them stories and anecdotes, walked on the ceiling, played a play with puppets, sang songs and danced a jig. And the kids survived! Not one fell asleep, not one roared. The only difficulty was a collective trip to the toilet every 20 minutes, because. a lot of milk was drunk. nine0003

Yaroslav Chevazhevsky had to promise the little actor a railway, which was also filmed right after the filming. And only then the boy deigned to withdraw.

“3R”: What is the difference between working with child models and adults, what are the differences between children of different ages? What is the most difficult age?

Alexander Voitetsky: The most difficult age is exactly the one I'm getting excited about here. That is, children who live more on impulses than on common sense ... He wanted to - he did it. And figs you will explain to him that the change costs money, that people did not come to play the fool, and so on. He wants to run - he will run until he falls. And you can’t tie him to a chair either ... Maybe he’s hysterical! Therefore, the directors run after them around the pavilion with Chupa-Chups in their hands, trying to calmly explain to the child how wrong he is, disrupting the shooting. nine0003

But not all children are like that. It happens that a child is so imbued with his responsibility and significance that he comes, honestly plays his role, receives a fee and leaves ... for the nearest “Children's World” for a long-awaited gift.

“ЗР”: How true is the thesis that advertising with the participation of children is doomed to success, and what needs to be done to make this success come?

Alexander Voitetsky: Only Gallup or A.C. Nielsen can answer this question.

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