Top feed for newborn baby
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding (for Parents)
Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their baby is one of the biggest decisions expectant and new parents will make.
Healt experts believe breast milk is the best nutritional choice for infants. But breastfeeding may not be possible for all women. For many, the decision to breastfeed or formula feed is based on their comfort level, lifestyle, and specific medical situations.
For moms who can't breastfeed or who decide not to, infant formula is a healthy alternative. Formula provides babies with the nutrients they need to grow and thrive.
Some mothers worry that if they don't breastfeed, they won't bond with their baby. But the truth is, loving mothers will always create a special bond with their children. And feeding — no matter how — is a great time to strengthen that bond.
The decision to breastfeed or formula feed your baby is a personal one. Weighing the pros and cons of each method can help you decide what is best for you and your baby.
All About Breastfeeding
Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both mother and baby. It provides ideal nourishment and a special bonding experience that many mothers cherish.
A number of health organizations — including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) — recommend breastfeeding as the best choice for babies. Breastfeeding helps defend against infections, prevent allergies, and protect against a number of chronic conditions.
The AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months. Beyond that, breastfeeding is encouraged until at least 12 months, and longer if both the mother and baby are willing.
Here are some of the many benefits of breastfeeding:
Fighting infections and other conditions. Breastfed babies have fewer infections and hospitalizations than formula-fed infants. During breastfeeding, antibodies and other germ-fighting factors pass from a mother to her baby and strengthen the immune system. This helps lower a baby's chances of getting many infections, including:
- ear infections
- respiratory infections
Breastfeeding also may protect babies against:
- sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
Breastfeeding is particularly beneficial for premature babies.
Nutrition and ease of digestion. Often called the "perfect food" for a human baby's digestive system, breast milk's components — lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat — are easily digested by a newborn.
As a group, breastfed infants have less difficulty with digestion than do formula-fed infants. Breast milk tends to be more easily digested so that breastfed babies have fewer bouts of diarrhea or constipation.
Breast milk also naturally contains many of the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires. One exception is vitamin D — the AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing until a baby consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after 1 year of age).
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates formula companies to ensure they provide all the necessary nutrients (including vitamin D) in their formulas. Still, commercial formulas can't completely match breast milk's exact composition. Why? Because milk is a living substance made by each mother for her individual infant, a process that can't be duplicated in a factory.
Free. Breast milk doesn't cost a cent, while the cost of formula quickly adds up. And unless you're pumping breast milk and giving it to your baby, there's no need for bottles, nipples, and other supplies that can be costly. Since breastfed babies are less likely to be sick, that may mean they make fewer trips to the doctor's office, so fewer co-pays and less money are paid for prescriptions and over-the-counter medicines.
Different tastes. Nursing mothers usually need 300 to 500 extra calories per day, which should come from a wide variety of well-balanced foods. This introduces breastfed babies to different tastes through their mothers' breast milk, which has different flavors depending on what their mothers have eaten. By tasting the foods of their "culture," breastfed infants more easily accept solid foods.
Convenience. With no last-minute runs to the store for more formula, breast milk is always fresh and available whether you're home or out and about. And when women breastfeed, there's no need to wash bottles and nipples or warm up bottles in the middle of the night.
Smarter babies. Some studies suggest that children who were exclusively breastfed have slightly higher IQs than children who were formula fed.
"Skin-to-skin" contact. Many nursing mothers really enjoy the experience of bonding so closely with their babies. And the skin-to-skin contact can enhance the emotional connection between mother and infant.
Beneficial for mom, too. The ability to totally nourish a baby can help a new mother feel confident in her ability to care for her baby. Breastfeeding also burns calories and helps shrink the uterus, so nursing moms may be able to return to their pre-pregnancy shape and weight quicker. Also, studies show that breastfeeding helps lower the risk of breast cancer, high blood pressure, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and also may help decrease the risk of uterine and ovarian cancer.
Breastfeeding can be easy from the get-go for some mothers, but take a while to get used to for others. Moms and babies need plenty of patience to get used to the routine of breastfeeding.
Common concerns of new moms, especially during the first few weeks and months, may include:
Personal comfort. Initially, many moms feel uncomfortable with breastfeeding. But with proper education, support, and practice, most moms overcome this.
Latch-on pain is normal for the first week to 10 days, and should last less than a minute with each feeding. But if breastfeeding hurts throughout feedings, or if their nipples and/or breasts are sore, it's a good idea for breastfeeding mothers to get help from a lactation consultant or their doctor. Many times, it's just a matter of using the proper technique, but sometimes pain can mean that something else is going on, like an infection.
Time and frequency of feedings. Breastfeeding requires a big time commitment from mothers, especially in the beginning, when babies feed often. A breastfeeding schedule or the need to pump breast milk during the day can make it harder for some moms to work, run errands, or travel.
And breastfed babies do need to eat more often than babies who take formula, because breast milk digests faster than formula. This means mom may find herself in demand every 2 or 3 hours (maybe more, maybe less) in the first few weeks.
Diet. Women who are breastfeeding need to be aware of what they eat and drink, since these can be passed to the baby through the breast milk. Just like during pregnancy, breastfeeding women should not eat fish that are high in mercury and should limit consumption of lower mercury fish.
If a mom drinks alcohol, a small amount can pass to the baby through breast milk. She should wait at least 2 hours after a single alcoholic drink to breastfeed to avoid passing any alcohol to the baby. Caffeine intake should be kept to no more than 300 milligrams (about one to three cups of regular coffee) or less per day because it can cause problems like restlessness and irritability in some babies.
Maternal medical conditions, medicines, and breast surgery. Medical conditions such as HIV or AIDS or those that involve chemotherapy or treatment with certain medicines can make breastfeeding unsafe. A woman should check with her doctor or a lactation consultant if she's unsure if she should breastfeed with a specific condition. Women should always check with the doctor about the safety of taking medicines while breastfeeding, including over-the-counter and herbal medicines.
Mothers who've had breast surgery, such as a reduction, may have difficulty with their milk supply if their milk ducts have been severed. In this situation, a woman should to talk to her doctor about her concerns and work with a lactation specialist.
All About Formula Feeding
Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative to breast milk, and even contain some vitamins and nutrients that breastfed babies need to get from supplements.
Manufactured under sterile conditions, commercial formulas attempt to duplicate mother's milk using a complex combination of proteins, sugars, fats, and vitamins that aren't possible to create at home. So if you don't breastfeed your baby, it's important to use only commercially prepared formula and not try to make your own.
Besides medical concerns that may prevent breastfeeding, for some women, breastfeeding may be too difficult or stressful. Here are other reasons women may choose to formula feed:
Convenience. Either parent (or another caregiver) can feed the baby a bottle at any time (although this is also true for women who pump their breast milk). This allows mom to share the feeding duties and helps her partner to feel more involved in the crucial feeding process and the bonding that often comes with it.
Flexibility. Once the bottles are made, a formula-feeding mother can leave her baby with a partner or caregiver and know that her little one's feedings are taken care of. There's no need to pump or to schedule work or other obligations and activities around the baby's feeding schedule. And formula-feeding moms don't need to find a private place to nurse in public.
Time and frequency of feedings. Because formula is less digestible than breast milk, formula-fed babies usually need to eat less often than breastfed babies.
Diet. Women who opt to formula feed don't have to worry about the things they eat or drink that could affect their babies.
Formula Feeding Challenges
As with breastfeeding, there are some challenges to consider when deciding whether to formula feed.
Lack of antibodies. None of the antibodies found in breast milk are in manufactured formula. So formula can't provide a baby with the added protection against infection and illness that breast milk does.
Can't match the complexity of breast milk. Manufactured formulas have yet to duplicate the complexity of breast milk, which changes as the baby's needs change.
Planning and organization. Unlike breast milk — which is always available, unlimited, and served at the right temperature — formula feeding your baby requires planning and organization to make sure that you have what you need when you need it. Parents must buy formula and make sure it's always on hand to avoid late-night runs to the store.
And it's important to always have the necessary supplies (like bottles and nipples) clean, easily accessible, and ready to go — otherwise, you will have a very hungry, very fussy baby to answer to. With 8-10 feedings in a 24-hour period, parents can quickly get overwhelmed if they're not prepared and organized.
Expense. Formula can be costly. Powdered formula is the least expensive, followed by concentrated, with ready-to-feed being the most expensive. And specialty formulas (such as soy and hypoallergenic) cost more — sometimes far more — than the basic formulas. During the first year of life, the cost of basic formula can run about $1,500.
Possibility of producing gas and constipation. Formula-fed babies may have more gas and firmer bowel movements than breastfed babies.
Making a Choice
Deciding how you will feed your baby can be a hard decision. You'll really only know the right choice for your family when your baby comes.
Many women decide on one method before the birth and then change their minds after their baby is born. And many women decide to breastfeed and supplement with formula because they find that is the best choice for their family and their lifestyle.
While you're weighing the pros and cons, talk to your doctor or lactation consultant. These health care providers can give you more information about your options and help you make the best decision for your family.
Amount and Schedule of Baby Formula Feedings
- In the first week after birth, babies should be eating no more than about 1 to 2 ounces (30 to 60 ml) per feed.
- During the first month, babies gradually eat more until they take 3 to 4 ounces (90 to 120 ml) per feed, amounting to 32 ounces per day. Formula-fed babies typically feed on a more regular schedule, such as every 3 or 4 hours. Breastfed babies usually take smaller, more frequent feedings than formula-fed infants.
If your baby sleeps longer than 4 to 5 hours during the first few weeks after birth and starts missing feedings, wake them up and offer a bottle.
By the end of the first month: Your baby will be up to at least 3 to 4 ounces (120 mL) per feeding, with a fairly predictable schedule of feedings about every 3 to 4 hours.
By 6 months: Your baby will consume 6 to 8 ounces (180–240 mL) at each of 4 or 5 feedings in 24 hours.
Formula feeding based on body weight
On average, your baby should take in about 2½ ounces (75 mL) of infant formula a day for every pound (453 g) of body weight. But they probably will regulate their intake from day to day to meet their own specific needs, so let them tell you when they've had enough. If they become fidgety or easily distracted during a feeding, they're probably finished. If they drain the bottle and continues smacking their lips, they might still be hungry.
There are high and low limits, however. If your baby consistently seems to want more or less than this, discuss it with your pediatrician. Your baby should usually drink no more than an average of about 32 ounces (960 mL) of formula in 24 hours. Some babies have higher needs for sucking and may just want to suck on a pacifier after feeding.
Initially it is best to feed your formula-fed newborn a bottle on demand, or whenever they cry with hunger. As time passes, your baby will begin to develop a fairly regular timetable of their own. As you become familiar with their signals and needs, you'll be able to schedule their feedings around their routine.
Eating & sleeping patterns
Between 2 and 4 months of age (or when the baby weighs more than 12 lb. [5.4 kg]), most formula-fed babies no longer need a middle-of-the-night feedings. They're consuming more during the day, and their sleeping patterns have become more regular (although this varies considerably from baby to baby). Their stomach capacity has increased, too, which means they may go longer between daytime feedings—occasionally up to 4 or 5 hours at a time.
If your baby still seems to feed very frequently or consume larger amounts, try distracting them with play or with a pacifier. Sometimes patterns of obesity begin during infancy, so it is important not to overfeed your baby.
Getting to know your baby's feeding needs
The most important thing to remember, whether you breastfeed or bottlefeed, is that your baby's feeding needs are unique. No book―or website―can tell you precisely how much or how often they need to be fed or exactly how you should handle them during feedings. You will discover these things for yourself as you and your baby get to know each other.
- How Often and How Much Should Your Baby Eat?
- Making Sure Your Baby is Getting Enough Milk
- Is Your Baby Hungry or Full? Responsive Feeding Explained (Video)
- Remedies for Spitty Babies
The information contained on this Web site should not be used as a substitute for the medical care and advice of your pediatrician. There may be variations in treatment that your pediatrician may recommend based on individual facts and circumstances.
Scheme of the first feeding of a child (table) with artificial and breastfeeding, what can be given to a baby
The need for the introduction of complementary foods in modern mothers has long been beyond doubt. Pediatricians, pediatric nutritionists and other graduates unanimously say that at some point both mother's milk and formula are not enough to satisfy the growing needs of the child's body for useful trace elements and vitamins. That's when it's time to introduce complementary foods. The fact that your baby is ready to get new experiences and try tastes so far unknown to him is indicated by the presence of the following signs:
• doubling the initial weight of the child,
• ability to sit with support,
• child does not push food out of his mouth,
• curiosity and desire to try something from the common table.
Signs of malnutrition in a child, constant feeling of hunger and anxiety associated with it, and weight loss can also be important signals for the start of complementary foods. In these cases, it is recommended to immediately contact a specialist and share your observations with him.
- When to start the introduction of complementary foods
- with which products to start the completenance of complementary foods
- We avoid errors
- Table of complementary foods for months with artificial feeding
- Table of complementary foods when breastfeeding
- start introducing complementary foods
The timing of the introduction of complementary foods is still debated. But if we bring scientific reasoning to a common denominator, then the conclusion suggests itself that complementary foods can be introduced from about six months, and for children with certain medical indications - from 3-5 months. Many experts believe that half a year is the ideal time for complementary foods, when the first colic is over, and the digestive system has matured enough to try new foods. The exact answer to the question of when to introduce complementary foods in a particular child can only be given by a pediatrician. In some situations, it may be necessary to introduce new dishes into the baby's diet as early as 4 months, and someone will be ready for this only after six months. nine0007
What foods should I start introducing complementary foods with
Fruits, vegetables or cereals? Which of these foods are best for starting complementary foods? Experts have long answered this question as follows: if the baby is underweight, suffers from frequent loose stools, it is advisable to start with cereals (of course, gluten-free and dairy-free), and if everything is fine with weight, then vegetables will be the first in line. Also, vegetable complementary foods are recommended for breastfed children with constipation problems, rickets, or those born prematurely, whose weight is normal or exceeds the standards. nine0003 Why not fruit? Everything is simple. Fruits have a bright and sweet taste, and after trying an apple or banana first, the baby is likely to refuse zucchini or broccoli, which do not have the same rich taste. Therefore, the introduction of fruit purees and juices into the diet is postponed until vegetable purees become a familiar dish on the menu. As for cereals, buckwheat, rice and corn are first introduced, as they are characterized by the absence of gluten, saturate and are well digested.
Read also: How to properly teach a child to different tastes
In order for the introduction of complementary foods not to become a test for either the baby or the mother, you need to follow some recommendations. Most importantly, be patient and don't get too upset if things don't go according to plan. Each child is individual, as are their taste preferences and needs.
• Start complementary foods if the baby is perfectly healthy. Contraindications for the introduction of new products will be teething, colds, stress associated with separation or moving, recent or planned vaccinations. nine0003 • New foods are introduced gradually, starting with half a teaspoon. In the absence of allergies or digestive problems, the amount of the product is approximately doubled the next day. Sometimes the introduction of a new product stretches up to a week. Do not rush, give the child the opportunity to "taste" this dish. If the baby flatly refuses the offer, postpone the acquaintance for at least a week.
• Do not force your child to eat. After all, your goal is to introduce your child to new tastes and help develop good eating habits. nine0003 • The best time for the first feeding is after the morning feed until 12 noon, when the baby is already hungry and ready to eat something else. In case something goes wrong, you will know about it during the day, not at night.
• In the event of an adverse reaction to the product, such as an allergy, seek medical advice immediately. Then, in agreement with the doctor, offer this dish after a certain period of time.
• Gradually increase the amount recommended by your pediatrician. If you don't fit within a week, don't worry. Listen to your child and act accordingly. nine0003 • Always start feeding with complementary foods. Only then offer breast milk or formula.
• Stick to a 5-meal schedule. Feed your baby at the same time every day.
• Food offered to the baby must be thermally processed - boiled or steamed. The dish should be at a comfortable temperature - about 37 ° C.
• Purees and cereals should be of a liquid consistency so that a child who does not yet know how to chew can comfortably eat them. Thicker dishes with lumps and pieces are introduced into the diet by about a year, when there are already several teeth. nine0003 • Do not use salt, sugar or spices when preparing complementary foods. Also, do not add them in order to force the child to eat something. Let the baby get used to natural tastes.
• Complementary foods are prepared at one time and should never be refrigerated until the next meal. Everything should be only the first freshness.
• If you prefer ready-made baby food, carefully study the top manufacturers, pay special attention to the shelf life when buying. nine0007
When introducing complementary foods, be guided by the data in the tables, which indicate which products, in what quantity and in what months experts recommend giving. 6 months
60 g 9000
12 months nine0012
180–200 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g 9000 g
80–120 g9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000 9000
60 g 9000 9000 g 900-100 g 900-100 g 9000 g. 0007
9007 9007 9007 9007 900EA0119 Cottage cheese
9 vegetable oil
, as you can see, the schemes for the introduction of pectoral and artificial feeding are not too much. In any case, starting to introduce new foods into the baby's diet, you will have to give the baby milk or formula for a long time, which are still the basis of his nutrition. nine0007
How to introduce solid foods by month
If your doctor advises your breastfeeding or formula-fed baby to introduce complementary foods at 3 months, start with what the specialist has recommended to you. If these are vegetables, start with the classic - zucchini puree. This vegetable contains many beneficial nutrients and fiber. Start with half a teaspoon, carefully observing the reaction of the child's body. Be sure to supplement your baby with breast milk or formula afterwards. In case the child does not like the zucchini, try giving broccoli or cauliflower. Well, if the doctor advised porridge, feel free to choose buckwheat or corn. nine0003 4-5 months
After your baby has tasted zucchini, broccoli and cauliflower, it's time to add other vegetables: carrots, potatoes, green peas. Do not overdo it with carrots, give it no more than 2 times a week. It is even better if this root crop is combined with other vegetables. It's porridge time! Gluten-free, water-cooked buckwheat, rice or corn. If the baby refuses to eat such cereals, add some breast milk or the usual mixture to them.
Time to pamper your baby with dried fruit compote, and formula-fed children start giving milk porridge. You can use a milk mixture to prepare such cereals, and in some cases, milk diluted with water. But in general, pediatricians do not advise introducing cow's milk into a child's diet before 8 months, as this can cause allergic reactions.
After the baby gets used to vegetable purees, you can try to give fruit purees and, if desired, juices, which should be diluted with water. There has been a lot of negative talk about juice lately. There is no fiber in them, but there are a lot of acids, which may not be completely safe for the stomach and have a high sugar content. So consult a pediatrician and think carefully about whether to give the baby juices or still prefer mashed potatoes and compotes. An excellent alternative to juices is children's herbal teas. Start introducing your baby to fruits with apples (preferably green varieties), bananas, and pears. The baby's menu is replenished with a new product - meat. Rabbit meat, turkey meat are best suited. Chicken and veal are also considered a good option. Low-fat pulp without streaks is taken. It is boiled or brought to readiness for a couple, then crushed in a blender or meat grinder. Meat with a gradual increase in its quantity is given as part of vegetable purees. Also at 7 months, it's time to give the baby a pumpkin. nine0003 8 months
An important moment in the introduction of complementary foods during artificial and breastfeeding occurs exactly at 8 months. It's time to give the baby a yolk. Watch the reaction of the body very carefully: if there are any manifestations of allergies. In case of a negative reaction of the body to chicken yolk, exclude it from the menu and try quail. It is best to give this product in the morning feeding from 9 to 11 hours. Along with vegetable and butter, gluten cereals are also introduced: oatmeal, millet, barley, pearl barley. It's time to give your child a taste of light vegetable soups. The components of the dish should be familiar to the child. Do not experiment by introducing dishes into the diet even with one unknown ingredient. Meatballs, boiled or steamed, are added to the meat in the form of mashed potatoes. nine0003 9 months
At this age, the baby should be introduced to the diet of low-fat fish: pollock, hake, perch, cod. For these purposes, fillets are taken and steamed, stewed or boiled. For the first time, fish are given in very small quantities. Start with once a week, gradually increasing to two. Remember that either fish or meat is given on the same day, without mixing these 2 products. If at the age of 8 months there were no prunes on the menu of the child, it's time to fix it. Dried fruit compote is also an excellent option, which at first is best diluted with water. However, you definitely shouldn’t get carried away with dried apricots, it’s better to wait until the baby reaches the age of one. nine0003 Months 10–12
The diet characteristic of this period is characterized by an increase in portions to their maximum values indicated in the scheme. Also, it is at this age that the last feeding is gradually replaced by milk or kefir.
Now that you've come across a set of essential tips, you're ready to start weaning. Once again, consult with a specialist, be patient, not forgetting to listen to the baby's body. We are confident that you will succeed. The main thing here, as in any other business, is a positive attitude. It all depends on you and your desire to raise a healthy and happy baby with competent eating behavior. Don't stop if you fail and don't get frustrated if things don't go according to plan. Everything will definitely work out. nine0007
#Nutrition for children under one year old #Complementary foods
Complementary feeding scheme on artificial feeding. Complementary feeding table
For the full development of a child under 1 year of age who is artificially fed, timely and competent introduction of complementary foods is mandatory. It will prepare the baby's body for the assimilation of adult food and significantly enrich the baby's diet.
Lactose-free milk Valio Eila UHT, enriched with vitamin D, 1.5%, 1 l Read more
Drinking yogurt Viola without filler Clean Label®, fat-free, 280 g Read more
Formula-fed babies are more prepared to accept new foods than babies who are exclusively breastfed by their mothers. Nevertheless, there are important rules that you must know.
Complementary feeding on artificial feeding should be introduced gradually and only if the baby is healthy. Start with one product. The transition to the next one can be done only when the child is used to the previous type of complementary foods. Feed your baby only on a high chair and never when he is lying down. Start with mashed foods. When the child has a chewing reflex, the puree can be replaced with more solid foods. They will help to properly form the jaw apparatus. Be guided by the personal recommendations of your pediatrician and the table of complementary foods, and in between meals, do not forget to give your child water to drink. nine0007
Carefully monitor the reaction of the baby's body to each new product introduced. Symptoms such as loose stools, rashes or redness on the skin should not be ignored. Perhaps this indicates intolerance to a child's body of any product. In this case, you will have to exclude it from the baby's diet and replace it with another.
According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, complementary foods should be introduced at the age of 6-8 months. The conducted scientific research and the accumulated experience of the Scientific Center for Children's Health of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences allow us to propose some adjustments and additions to the specified scheme. It has been established that the minimum age at which the introduction of the first complementary foods is possible is 4 months. Before this period, the child is not yet ready to assimilate food other than human milk or infant formula. By 4 months With age, the child’s gastrointestinal tract becomes more mature: the initially increased permeability of the mucous membrane of the small intestine decreases, a number of digestive enzymes mature, a sufficient level of local immunity is formed, the child acquires the ability to swallow semi-liquid and thicker food, associated with the extinction of the “spoon ejection reflex”. At the same time, late feeding (after 6 months) can cause a pronounced deficiency of micronutrients (iron, zinc, etc.) and the need for the rapid introduction of a large number of products, which leads to an increased allergenic load, as well as a delay in the formation of chewing skills and swallowing thick food. Therefore, it is advisable to introduce complementary foods to children at the age of 4–6 months. The timing of the introduction of complementary foods is set individually for each child, taking into account the peculiarities of the development of the digestive system, excretory organs, the level of metabolism, as well as the degree of development and functioning of the central nervous system, that is, its readiness to perceive new food. nine0007
Given that modern adapted milk formulas contain the necessary set of vitamins and minerals, there is no need to correct for these substances with complementary foods earlier than when breastfeeding. Therefore, the scheme for the introduction of complementary foods can be the same. The proposed approximate scheme for the introduction of complementary foods to children of the first year of life is presented in the table. Up to six months, the child has an underdeveloped gastrointestinal tract and not all the enzymes necessary for the assimilation of complementary foods are produced. If complementary foods are introduced later than this period, it will be difficult for the baby to overcome the stereotype of eating only liquid food. nine0007
Complementary feeding table for children under 1 year of age with artificial feeding
Specialists in the field of baby food have developed the following table of complementary foods by month:
Before introducing complementary foods, make sure that the child's body is ready for it. Signs to look out for:
- maturity of the gastrointestinal tract;
- weakening of the ejection reflex of solid food; nine0016
- the readiness of the child for the chewing process - the appearance of the first teeth;
- the ability of the infant to be stable in a sitting position;
- emotional readiness of the baby to get acquainted with new taste sensations.
Learn more about the formula-fed baby menu in our blog. Consider all these recommendations, but do not forget that you need to introduce complementary foods to a child on artificial feeding under the supervision of the attending pediatrician. Be healthy! nine0007
You may be interested
Author: Reetta Tikanmäki
Palm oil in baby food
Infant milk formulas are made from cow's milk. However, in terms of fat composition, it differs significantly from that of the mother.
Author: Oksana Ivargizova
How to choose a milk formula for a baby
Breast milk is the best food for a newborn baby.