What to feed baby whitetail deer

Fawn Care Guidelines - NADeFA

By Dr. Cliff Shipley

These are general guidelines for raising whitetail and mule deer fawns. There are diseases and conditions that may be specific to certain areas or where these guidelines don’t work! As always, if it ain’t broke, don’t fix it! Always consult your local veterinarian for area specific conditions and to see if certain antibiotics or other medicaments may work better in your area or at different dosages.

Colostrum is the most important thing in the fawn’s life. It contains antibodies to the diseases that the does have been exposed to or vaccinated for. It also contains vitamins, protein, energy and laxative to get their intestinal tract working. We also believe that it contains factors that help prime the immune system to work properly. If they do not get colostrum, they are more likely to get scours, pneumonia, necrotic stomatatis, become chronic poor doers, succumb to other diseases and die. Colostrum can be obtained from milking out does that have lost their fawns (trust me, it’s tedious but worth it) or from someone that has cows, goats, sheep. You just need to be aware of the disease status of the place you get the colostrum from as you may lose your TB status or infect your fawns with Johne’s or other diseases. A tip that may be useful is to go to the drug store and get a breast pump to help you obtain colostrum from a doe. Heat treating or pasteurizing this non-farm colostrum may be your best bet to make sure you don’t spread disease. The following are suggestions for things that you can do to help make your fawning season more successful and hopefully raise healthy fawns. If you have vaccinated your does pre-fawning for some of these diseases, you may not want to or have to give some of these things to the fawns.

Birth/Day 1:

  • Allow fawn(s) and doe to bond/nurse
  • If cold, multiple births, or doe fails to claim fawn(s) or they don’t nurse:
       A. Tube with colostrum (cow/doe; goat/ewe) or give First Catch Fawn or allow fawn to nurse colostrum from bottle
       B. Pull fawn and bottle raise (make sure it gets colostrum either via tubing or nursing from bottle)
       C. Graft to another doe


8 to 18 Hours (8-12 works best for me)

  1. Tag (each state may have different requirements, try to get a herd tag and a “state” tag in so they can be identified properly. Microchipping and tattooing may also be options for some producers.
  2. Give First Catch Fawn or E. colizer + C (2-5 ml orally) or E. colizer (2 -5 cc orally) plus C&D antitoxin orally/SQ (use lamb label dose). I do this to ensure that the fawns get colostrum and protection against E. coli and Clostridium Type C&D. If the does have been vaccinated and you’re sure the fawns got plenty of colostrum, you can skip this, but for the most part it’s pretty cheap insurance on those expensive fawns.
  3. Antibiotics are optional, but in high risk fawns (cold, small, no colostrum) you may want to give prophylactic antibiotics or if certain diseases are common on your farm/ranch. I recommend SQ (under the skin) because I don’t want to hurt any muscles on that delicate fawn and most medications are absorbed as well SQ as they are intramuscularly (IM). The FDA has recently outlawed all extralabel use of Excede so depending on how you or your veterinarian interpret the rules, you may not wish to use. I haven’t decided yet myself!
       a. Excede 0.15 ml SQ or
       b. Draxxin 0.1 ml SQ or
       c. Nuflor 0.6 ml SQ
  4. Vitamin E/Se (if in deficient area: make sure you consult with your local veterinarian) 1cc BoSE SQ
  5. ProbiosR or similar product: lamb dose or 1/10th to _ calf or foal dose. There are many probiotic preparations on the market. Many also have some vitamins and minerals as well. There are some deer specific ones that you may want to use that may be easier to titrate the dose on.
  6. Vitamin AD 0.05-0.1 ml SQ optional. If does have had poor nutrition or under lots of stress probably need to do. If fawns are weak or slow probably need to give.
  7. pull hair sample for DNA. Put in a paper envelop and label appropriately
  8. may want to consider giving plasma/transfuse fawns if unsure of colostrum intake, weak, sick, extremely valuable. Also can test for failure of passive transfer by your veterinarian doing a total protein test. Transfuse all that fail.


24-72 Hours
Pull fawns that you are going to bottle rear. Everyone pulls fawns for bottle rearing at different times. Do what has worked best for you in the past. Once fawns are 24 hours old or so, their gut ‘closes’ so that they probably won’t absorb any more antibodies from the doe, so that is a good time to pull them. Some people like to wait longer, but the longer you wait, the more difficult it is to start the fawn on the bottle. I personally like to wait till they are 24 to 48 hours old and pull them late afternoon/early evening and then try to feed them once before I go to bed. If they eat, fabulous, if not, they are hungry in the morning and usually take right off on the bottle.

For those of you who don’t want to bottle raise, some people are trying to ‘imprint’ their fawns to make them semi-tame. This is a technique that horse people have been using for years. Simply catch, hold, play, rub, pet the fawn early and as often as you can to imprint on it that humans are not all that bad, while letting mom do the feeding. Early reports are that the fawns are not as tame as bottle babies, but tame enough that they are happy with the results.

Bottle Feeding
First week or so: 2 to 4 ounces five times a day. I feed at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m., 6 p.m. and 10pm to 11 pm. You can feed more often and smaller amounts, but you should try to feed 10% to 20% of the fawn’s body weight per day in milk. So if your fawn weighs 6 lbs (96 oz), then 10% is about 10 oz., 20% is 20 oz., etc. This allows the fawns to grow at the rate you want.

If using a formula designed for fawns or goat milk replacer, the fawns should not scour using these guidelines. Fawns do not scour generally from feeding (with the right formula), they scour from disease (E. coli, Salmonella, rota or corona virus, Clostridium, coccidiosis, etc). If properly cared for and clean equipment used, you should not have scour problems. If you do, then something is wrong and you need to adjust accordingly.

I often encourage using milk replacer. Use one that is formulated for fawns and mix according to the directions. If you have problems, you should analyze your water as it may have bacteria or mineral content that is causing the problem. If you do feed goat milk, make sure your source doesn’t have Johne’s Disease, Caseous Lymphadenitis or other diseases and has your same TB status. I know people that have successfully raised fawns on lamb milk replacer, whole cow’s milk and other formulas. If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it, but if you look at all the data, fawns should and usually do better on species specific milk due to the fat and protein and sugar content being most similar to the doe.

Fawns will need to be stimulated to defecate and urinate for the first few weeks. I generally recommend you use rubber gloves and baby wipes and stimulate while feeding. This is what the doe does and usually you can perfect the technique so you can catch and do not have much ‘wiping’. You may want to change gloves between fawns so that you don’t spread any potential diseases from fawn to fawn.

I usually recommend decreasing the number of feedings every 10 days or so by one. So at 10 days, drop to four feedings per day (6 am, 12 pm, 6 pm and 10-11 pm) and all they can eat. I know this is heresy and most people calculate things out to the ounce, but about 20 percent of body weight is all they can consume, and I have not had any problems. Once again, if you are doing something that works, don’t change. I’m lazy and want my fawns to grow as fast as they can.

Generally with this schedule, feed three times per day around 20 days (6-7 am, 2-3 pm and 10-11 pm), twice a day at 30 days of age (6-7 am and 6-7 pm), and once a day at 40-50 days. You can wean them as soon as you think they are consuming enough dry feed and greens or you get tired of feeding them. I have several producers that feed three times a day from the start and don’t have any problems. I’m probably going to try that this year due to my ‘free’ help starting to disappear. I may even be so bold as to go to twice a day after the first 3-5 days due to the fact that while doing some research, I found a couple of articles on normal (non-captive) deer feeding behavior and it indicated nursing activity of 2-3 times per day. I will let you know how that turns out

Offer fresh, clean water everyday in a small bowl. Also offer small amounts of “creep” feed or your regular deer ration. Keep it fresh and clean by cleaning the bowls daily and offering new feed. I generally recommend a 18% ration for fawns, but if you are successfully feeding 20%, that’s fine. I also hand feed select ‘greens’ — hand-picked alfalfa, clover, dandelions, etc. — to the fawns every day for them to nibble on. You can also use very good quality alfalfa or other legume hay, but I think that they eat the fresh stuff better. Some people offer ‘clean’ dirt in a bowl from birth on. The theory is they get some nutrients from the dirt to help them and their intestinal tract function better. I know many people who do and don’t do this and they all get along fine.

I keep fawns in separate pens and isolated from other fawns for several reasons. They will ‘bond’ better to humans (may want to get them used to multiple people) if kept separate and it greatly decreases the chance of spreading disease between the fawns. Think like a dairy farmer raising calves in calf hutches. I generally mix the fawns in small groups depending on numbers and fawn growth and conditions at 3 to 6 weeks (or more). If they start to nurse/suck on each other (ears/tail/navel) then I either take them apart or spray vinegar or Chew Guard or Bitter Apple or Bitter Orange on the fawn part they are sucking on. The latter two products can be obtained from your veterinarian or catalog source.

Fawns could be weaned as early as 60 days or so following these guidelines, but it is usually best to base weaning on feed consumption and body condition. Bottle feeding is time consuming and milk replacer costs lots of money. You will have to use your best judgment and do what fits your situation best. Many people like to feed longer to keep the babies tame and used to humans. Some just like to feed the babies (so do I, but it does get old after a while!).

Pens should be on dirt (if possible) or the new raised decks may work well (I haven’t tried them). The dirt should be covered with two to four inches or so of crushed limestone and then have shavings (or straw) on top. I think shavings work better and I am fond of cedar chips as I think they tend to keep flies away a little better plus I like their smell. Pine shavings or chips are fine but try to get kiln dried (cleaner with fewer bacteria in them) and try to stay away from sawdust on the really small fawns (gets in their eyes). I usually sprinkle some barn lime in every once in a while or when changing the shavings/straw as this changes the pH and tends to keep the bacteria down and the area ‘sweet. Especially as the fawns grow and start urinating enough to keep it wet. Make sure that you have good ventilation so the there is air circulating, but no drafts. This will also help keep the area dry.

Helpful Products
Some products that are commonly used that you may want to obtain prior to fawning are:

  • First Catch Fawn and First Fawn milk supplement from Labelle Inc.
  • Milk Replacer: Fawn specific such as Superior, Zoologic, Fox Valley, etc.
  • Goat milk replacer: Several companies provide this, but if it is inexpensive, it’s probably not any good. Some cheap milk replacers are made from non-milk products and are less digestible. You generally get what you pay, so don’t buy the cheap stuff. Purina, Land-O-Lakes, ADM etc. are usually good sources. There may be others, but read the label. If in doubt, check with your veterinarian or nutritionist. If you are using a product that has a lamb/kid label, mix at the kid rates usually.
  • Pritchard nipples: Fawns generally take off on these better than others. They are available from a variety of sources. If in doubt, check Nasco.
  • Ear tags: Some states require a special ID. I also like to use the sheep/goat tags so they are double ID’ed.
  • Needles, syringes, medications.
  • Disinfectant for bottles, navel cord
  • Fawn cradle
  • Fawn masks
  • Put everything that you need in a “tote” or tool box for easy use
  • Record book: the shortest pencil is better than the longest memory!


I hope some of these suggestions help you have a successful and fun fawning season. By the way, I’m not endorsing any of these products, just using names that I am familiar with and have worked for me. If you are using other products or there are other products out there that work for you, by all means, use them. I’m not getting a kickback from anyone!

Wildlife First Aid - How to Feed Baby Deer (Fawns)

Baby fawns go through two containers of milk a day. All goat milk or a fawn replacement milk should be used.   Some Walmart stores carry goat milk; Tractor Supply stores carry a wildlife replacement milk that will include fawns on the back label.

A newborn fawn is the size of two Chihuahuas. It's important to add seven drops of lactate as well to the formula. If you have a young fawn, do not add anything solid.

When they are the size of the deer in the photos below, add some solid food to the formula such as baby rice or baby cereal. Mix it well with water until it has a pudding-like consistency. Deer love sweet tastes, and bananas are always a good source of sweetness. For older deer, you can add a banana, but be sure to beat it with a fork until it liquefies. You can put it into a blender or use a mixer and stir it up -- but make sure the banana seeds don't clog the nipple.

The hole in this nipple is too large!

Also, be sure that the hole in the nipple is not too large so the liquid cannot be drunk too quickly. If they drink too fast, they will give themselves a stomachache along with having digestive problems.

Before feeding, heat up the formula. You don't want to feed deer cold formula. Then give it to the deer before everybody else eats it. (Ingrid said that as one of her cats was sampling the formula to be sure it was just right.)

Use a funnel to pour the mixture into baby bottles (two per fawn per feeding). There should be two feedings a day. Be sure to heat the liquid. It must be given very warm.

When feeding, keep the bottles high because that's how they would eat from the mother as she stands up

They go through it quickly.

You can pull and push back and forth as you feed, because that's what the mother does.

Also take a warm wet cloth and wipe the genital area to help stimulate the bowels. If they are not kept regular, they will get diarrhea or become constipated.

The deer in the photo are not that young, more like two months old. By the way, these guys are not related.

If they're older, you can chop up carrots or apples and just stick the pieces in their mouth. When deer go from formula to other foods, it's a big move.


Unless you actually see a dead doe, leave the fawn alone.   Fawns are rarely orphaned. The mother will often run if you approach, and return to the fawn after you leave; the fawn can't run, and will typically freeze and try not to be seen.

Be sure to contact an animal rehabilitator promptly if you are dealing with a young fawn, because they imprint quickly, and once imprinted, are problematic to release into the wild.

Wildlife Watch / Rehabilitator Hotline:

( 877-945-3435 )


The R. O.C.K. column is each issue of the Wildlife Watch Binocular.

Back to First Aid Index


WHITE-TAILED DEER ᐈ Photo and description ✔

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of three North American deer species. The other two species include the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and the black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus). These two living relatives of the white-tailed deer have almost the same appearance. Both deer are slightly smaller, with darker fur and different antler shapes.

Species origin and description

Photo: White-tailed deer

White-tailed deer are one of the most adaptable mammals in North America. The main reason this species has survived for so long has to do with its adaptability. When the Ice Age arrived, many organisms could not withstand the rapidly changing conditions, but white-tailed deer thrived.

This species is extremely adaptable, it was helped to survive by such features as:

  • strong leg muscles;
  • big horns;
  • warning signals; nine0018
  • color-changing fur.

White-tailed deer are known to use their antlers for many things, such as fighting and marking their territory. Over the past 3.5 million years, the antlers of the white-tailed deer have changed a lot due to the need to have larger and thicker sizes. Since the horns are primarily used for fighting, the general rule is that the bigger they are, the better.

The white-tailed deer is one of the oldest living land mammals in North America. This species is about 3.5 million years old. Due to age, the ancestors of deer are quite difficult to determine. The white-tailed deer has been found to be closely related to Odocoileus brachyodontus, apart from some minor differences. It may also be related to some ancient moose species at the DNA level. nine0005

Appearance and features

Photo: Animal white-tailed deer

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is one of the most common wild animals in the states of America. Two seasonal molts produce two completely different skins. Summer coloration consists of short, fine hairs of a reddish-brown color. This pelt grows out in August and September and is replaced by a winter coat which consists of longer, hollow greyish brown hairs. The hollow hair and undercoat provide considerable protection from cold winter weather. nine0005

Winter color changes to summer color in April and May. The deer's belly, chest, throat and chin are white throughout the year. The skins of newborn fawns are reddish-brown with several hundred small white spots. This spotted coloration helps to hide them from predators.

Deer with aberrant color phases are not uncommon in Alabama. Pure white (albino) or black (melanistic) deer are indeed rare. However, piebald deer births are quite common throughout Alabama. Piebald deer are characterized by having an almost completely white coat with some brown spots. nine0005

Video: White-tailed deer

White-tailed deer have an excellent sense of smell. Their elongated noses are filled with a complex system that contains millions of olfactory receptors. Their keen sense of smell is very important for protection from predators, identifying other deer and food sources. Perhaps most importantly, their sense of smell is important for communicating with other deer. Deer have seven glands that are used for aromatization.

Deer also have excellent auditory perception. Their large, mobile ears allow them to detect sounds over long distances and accurately determine their direction. Deer can make a range of sounds, including various grunts, screams, whimpers, wheezes and snorts. nine0005

Approximately 38 subspecies of white-tailed deer have been described in North, Central and South America. Thirty of these subspecies are found only in North and Central America.

Where do white-tailed deer live?

Photo: American Whitetail Deer

Whitetail deer are typically found in the Midwest of North America. These deer can live in almost any environment, but prefer mountainous areas with deciduous forests. White-tailed deer need access to open fields that are surrounded by trees or tall grass for protection from predators and foraging. nine0005

Most of the deer living in the US are in the following states:

  • Arkansas;
  • Georgia;
  • Michigan;
  • North Carolina;
  • Ohio;
  • Texas;
  • Wisconsin;
  • Alabama.

White-tailed deer adapt well to different types of habitat, as well as to sudden environmental changes. They can survive in areas of mature wood as well as areas with extensive open areas. For this reason, they are found in many places in North America. nine0005

White-tailed deer are adaptive creatures and survive best in areas with varied terrain. No single type of environment is ideal for deer, whether it be mature hardwoods or pine plantations. Simply put, deer need food, water, and the right landscape. Living and nutritional requirements change throughout the year, so a good habitat has enough of the ingredients needed throughout the year.

What do white-tailed deer eat?

Photo: White-tailed deer in Russia

On average, deer eat between 1 and 3 kg of food per day for every 50 kg of body weight. A medium-sized deer consumes over a ton of feed per year. Deer are ruminants and, like cattle, have a complex four-chambered stomach. By nature, deer are very selective. Their mouths are long and geared toward picking out specific foods.

The deer's diet is as varied as its habitat. These mammals feed on leaves, branches, fruits and shoots of various trees, shrubs and vines. Deer also feed on many weeds, grasses, agricultural plantations, and several types of fungi. nine0005

Unlike cattle, deer do not feed exclusively on a limited variety of foods. White-tailed deer can eat significant amounts of all kinds of plants found in their habitat. Of course, when overcrowding causes a shortage of food, deer will eat more of a variety of foods that are not included in their usual diet.

Features of character and lifestyle

Photo: White-tailed deer in the forest

Groups of white-tailed deer are divided into two types. These include family groups, with fallow deer and her young offspring, and groups of males. The family group will stay together for about a year. Groups of males are structured with a dominance hierarchy of 3 to 5 individuals. nine0005

In winter, these two groups of deer can gather together, forming communities of up to 150 individuals. This association makes trails open and accessible for feeding, and provides protection from predators. Due to human feeding, these areas can cause unnaturally high deer densities that attract predators, increase the risk of disease transmission, increase community aggression, overeating local vegetation, and more collisions.

White-tailed deer can swim, run and jump very well. The winter skin of a mammal has hollow hairs, the distance between which is filled with air. Thanks to this animal, it is difficult to drown, even if it is exhausted. White-tailed deer can run at speeds of up to 58 km per hour, although they usually head for the nearest hiding place and never cover long distances. The deer can also jump up to 2.5 meters high and 9 meters long.

When alarmed, white-tailed deer may stamp their hooves and snort to warn other deer. The animal may also "mark" territory or raise its tail, showing its white underside. nine0005

Social structure and reproduction

Photo: White-tailed deer calf

The social structure of the white-tailed deer outside the breeding season is centered on two main social groups: matriarchal and male. Matriarchal groups consist of a female, her mother, and female offspring. Male groups are free groups that consist of adult deer.

Studies have documented average conception dates from Thanksgiving to mid-December, early January and even February. For most habitats, the breeding season peaks in mid to late January. During this period, white-tailed males experience hormonal changes. Adult deer become more aggressive and less tolerant of other males. nine0005

During this time, males mark and defend breeding territories by creating numerous marks within their range. During the breeding season, the male may mate with the female several times.

As the birth approaches, the pregnant female becomes lonely and defends her territories from other deer. Fawns are born about 200 days after conception. In North America, most fawns are born from late July to mid-August. The number of offspring depends on the age and physical condition of the female. As a rule, a one-year-old female has one fawn, but twins are very rare. nine0005

Reindeer herds in sub-optimal habitats that are heavily overpopulated may show poor survival among offspring. In the first few days after birth, the female rarely moves more than 100 meters away from her cubs. Fawns begin to accompany their mothers at the age of three to four weeks.

Natural enemies of white-tailed deer

Photo: White-tailed deer

White-tailed deer lives in forest areas. In some places, reindeer overpopulation is a problem. Gray wolves and mountain lions were predators that helped keep the population in check, but due to hunting and human development, there are not many wolves and mountain lions left in most regions of North America. nine0005

White-tailed deer occasionally become prey for coyotes, but humans and dogs are now the species' main enemies. Because there are not many natural predators, the deer population sometimes becomes too large for the environment, causing the deer to starve to death. In rural areas, hunters help control the population of these animals, but hunting is often not allowed in suburban and urban areas, as a result of which the number of these animals continues to grow. Good survival does not mean that these deer are absolutely invulnerable. nine0005

Threats to the white-tailed deer population (other than natural predators) include:

  • poaching;
  • car accidents;
  • diseases.

Many hunters know that deer have very poor eyesight. White-tailed deer have dichromatic vision, which means they only see two colors. Due to their lack of good eyesight, white-tailed deer developed a strong sense of smell to detect predators.

Bluetongue fever is a disease that affects a huge number of deer. The infestation is transmitted by the fly and causes the tongue to swell and also causes the victim to lose control of their legs. Many individuals die within a week. Otherwise, recovery can take up to 6 months. This disease also affects many species of terrestrial mammals. nine0005

Population and species status

Photo: Animal white-tailed deer

Deer were rare in most states of North America until recent years. In the early 1900s, it was estimated that there were only about 2,000 deer in the state of Alabama alone. After decades of efforts to increase the population, the number of deer in the state of Alabama in 2000 was estimated at 1.75 million animals.

In fact, many parts of North America are overpopulated with deer. As a result, crops are damaged, and the number of collisions between reindeer and vehicles increases. Historically, the predominant white-tailed deer subspecies in North America has been the Virginia (O. v. virginianus). After the almost complete extermination of whitetails in the states of the Midwest in the early 1900s, the Department of Conservation, along with some individuals and groups, began to fight to increase the number of deer in the 1930s.

In the early 1900s, deer hunting laws were passed, but they were hardly enforced. By 1925, there were only 400 deer in Missouri. This decline has resulted in the Missouri Legislature ceasing deer hunting altogether and strictly enforcing protection and restoration regulations. nine0005

The Department of Conservation has made efforts to relocate deer to Missouri from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota to help replenish the deer population. Conservation agents began to enforce rules that helped prevent poaching. By 1944, the deer population had increased to 15,000.

Currently, the number of deer in Missouri alone is 1.4 million, and about 300,000 animals are hunted annually by hunters. Deer management in Missouri is trying to stabilize the population at a level that is within the biological capacity of nature. nine0005

White-tailed deer is a graceful and beautiful animal that plays an important role in wildlife. To ensure the health of forests, deer herds must be balanced with their habitat. Natural balance is a key factor for the successful existence of wildlife.

Date of publication: 11.02.2019

Date of update: 16.09.2019 at 14:45

Author: Alekseeva Inna

White-tailed deer | Children's site


The white-tailed deer is the smallest of the deer family in North, Central and South America. They have a white tail when displayed vertically.

The main facts and information

  • Scientific name: Odocoileus virginianus
  • General name: White -tailed deer
  • Type: mammal
  • Diet: Herbivore
  • Group name: STADED
  • MIDELLOW: From 6 to 7.75 FOUTS
  • Average weight: 110 to 300 pounds
  • Average life expectancy in captivity: 6 to 14 years
  • White-tailed deer usually live in fields and meadows near streams or rivers in summer. They also live in coniferous forests in winter.
    Among the North American deer family, they are the smallest. They are native to the USA, Canada, Mexico, Central America and South America.
    White-tailed deer are also present in many countries including New Zealand, Puerto Rico, Serbia, Czech Republic and Finland.
    Western Oregon and southern Washington are dominated by Columbian white-tailed deer. nine0005

    "White-tailed" refers to the white underside of a deer's tail, usually displayed whenever it senses danger.
    Male white-tailed deer are called bucks and are distinguished by their large antlers in summer and autumn. When winter sets in, the antlers fall off and grow back the next year.

    Mature deer have reddish-brown coats during the heat of summer, turning to greyish-brown in winter.
    A female deer is called a fallow deer, and young deer are called deer.
    White-tailed deer are herbivores, meaning they eat a wide variety of greenery, including leaves, twigs, nuts, fruit, and grass. nine0201 They have good eyesight, a strong sense of smell and keen hearing. They can run up to 48 kilometers per hour and jump up to 10 feet.
    They are crepuscular animals, which makes them most active at dusk and dawn. In addition to being good sprinters, the white-tailed deer is a good swimmer.
    In the northern part of its range, white-tailed deer mate in late October to early November, while in the southern part of the rut, it occurs in January and February.
    The gestation period for women is 6 ½ months. After this period, they will give birth to 1 to 3 reddish-brown spotted young. nine0201 At birth, fawns are able to walk. They nurse for 8 weeks until vegetation is added to their diet. After a year, the male fry usually leave, and the females stay with their mother for up to two years.
    The average female reaches sexual maturity at 1.5 years of age, but some may also become pregnant at 6 months of age depending on the availability of food.

    The horns are used during mating season when males fight to breed with females.
    White-tailed deer have preorbital, frontal, tarsal, and metatarsal glands that enable them to produce scent. nine0201 Other members of the Cervidae family, including moose and mules, also have horns. Horns are bony formations that develop from a pedicle on the frontal bone of the skull. Males begin to show horn buttons as early as 4 to 5 months of age.
    In the wild, most white-tailed deer live for about 2-3 years, but their maximum lifespan is 20 years.
    Their natural predators include wolves, coyotes, bears, mountain lions, jaguars and human hunters.
    Using Bergman's rule, white-tailed deer are larger in size the farther from the equator they live in. nine0201 In the Andes, white-tailed deer are larger with thick and slightly woolly looking fur.
    Although the horn has nothing but horns, this may be due to free martinism or an imbalance in testosterone.
    Like humans, they have thirty-two teeth.
    Like cows, they have a four-chambered stomach that allows them to digest tough plants.
    At 18 months, deer lose their baby teeth and grow into permanent ones.

    Behavioral traits and conservation status

    The white-tailed deer is a "flying animal" that uses its speed and agility to outrun predators. nine0201 They communicate with each other through several types of vocalizations such as grunts, bluffs and grunts.

    They usually gather in family groups consisting of mothers and calves. When the female does not have a fawn, she lives alone.

    Learn more