Who baby food recommendations
When, What, and How to Introduce Solid Foods | Nutrition
For more information about how to know if your baby is ready to starting eating foods, what first foods to offer, and what to expect, watch these videos from 1,000 Days.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend children be introduced to foods other than breast milk or infant formula when they are about 6 months old. Introducing foods before 4 months old is not recommended. Every child is different. How do you know if your child is ready for foods other than breast milk or infant formula? You can look for these signs that your child is developmentally ready.
- Sits up alone or with support.
- Is able to control head and neck.
- Opens the mouth when food is offered.
- Swallows food rather than pushes it back out onto the chin.
- Brings objects to the mouth.
- Tries to grasp small objects, such as toys or food.
- Transfers food from the front to the back of the tongue to swallow.
What Foods Should I Introduce to My Child First?
The American Academy of Pediatrics says that for most children, you do not need to give foods in a certain order. Your child can begin eating solid foods at about 6 months old. By the time he or she is 7 or 8 months old, your child can eat a variety of foods from different food groups. These foods include infant cereals, meat or other proteins, fruits, vegetables, grains, yogurts and cheeses, and more.
If your child is eating infant cereals, it is important to offer a variety of fortifiedalert icon infant cereals such as oat, barley, and multi-grain instead of only rice cereal. Only providing infant rice cereal is not recommended by the Food and Drug Administration because there is a risk for children to be exposed to arsenic. Visit the U.S. Food & Drug Administrationexternal icon to learn more.
How Should I Introduce My Child to Foods?
Your child needs certain vitamins and minerals to grow healthy and strong.
Now that your child is starting to eat food, be sure to choose foods that give your child all the vitamins and minerals they need.
Click here to learn more about some of these vitamins & minerals.
Let your child try one single-ingredient food at a time at first. This helps you see if your child has any problems with that food, such as food allergies. Wait 3 to 5 days between each new food. Before you know it, your child will be on his or her way to eating and enjoying lots of new foods.
Introduce potentially allergenic foods when other foods are introduced.
Potentially allergenic foods include cow’s milk products, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, soy, and sesame. Drinking cow’s milk or fortified soy beverages is not recommended until your child is older than 12 months, but other cow’s milk products, such as yogurt, can be introduced before 12 months. If your child has severe eczema and/or egg allergy, talk with your child’s doctor or nurse about when and how to safely introduce foods with peanuts.
How Should I Prepare Food for My Child to Eat?
At first, it’s easier for your child to eat foods that are mashed, pureed, or strained and very smooth in texture. It can take time for your child to adjust to new food textures. Your child might cough, gag, or spit up. As your baby’s oral skills develop, thicker and lumpier foods can be introduced.
Some foods are potential choking hazards, so it is important to feed your child foods that are the right texture for his or her development. To help prevent choking, prepare foods that can be easily dissolved with saliva and do not require chewing. Feed small portions and encourage your baby to eat slowly. Always watch your child while he or she is eating.
Here are some tips for preparing foods:
- Mix cereals and mashed cooked grains with breast milk, formula, or water to make it smooth and easy for your baby to swallow.
- Mash or puree vegetables, fruits and other foods until they are smooth.
- Hard fruits and vegetables, like apples and carrots, usually need to be cooked so they can be easily mashed or pureed.
- Cook food until it is soft enough to easily mash with a fork.
- Remove all fat, skin, and bones from poultry, meat, and fish, before cooking.
- Remove seeds and hard pits from fruit, and then cut the fruit into small pieces.
- Cut soft food into small pieces or thin slices.
- Cut cylindrical foods like hot dogs, sausage and string cheese into short thin strips instead of round pieces that could get stuck in the airway.
- Cut small spherical foods like grapes, cherries, berries and tomatoes into small pieces.
- Cook and finely grind or mash whole-grain kernels of wheat, barley, rice, and other grains.
Learn more about potential choking hazards and how to prevent your child from choking.
Top of Page
Helpful Resources | Nutrition | CDC
If you would like more information on topics related to feeding your baby or toddler, here are some resources:
CDC’s Infant and Toddler Nutrition microsite syndication
CDC offers a free Web Content Syndication service that gives public health partners the opportunity to syndicate CDC content directly to their sites without having to monitor or copy updates. To search the CDC infant and toddler nutrition website available for syndication as well as other resources you can share, visit the CDC Public Health Media Library and browse or search for “infant and toddler nutrition”. Learn more about content syndication and how to add CDC syndicated content on your site.
CDC’s Child and Teen Resources
This collection of resources provides parents and caregivers, health care providers, and partners with tools and information to help children and teens maintain a healthy weight and prevent obesity.
CDC’s Child Development Positive Parenting Tips (Infants)
This CDC website provides information about infants’ development, as well as tips for positive parenting and promoting the safety and health of infants.
CDC’s Learn the Signs. Act Early.
This website includes tools to track children’s milestones and resources about children’s development.
CDC’s Parent Information
This CDC website provides resources and information on pregnancy, infants and toddlers, children, and teens. Learn how to handle common parenting challenges through interactive activities, videos, and more. Healthcare professionals and researchers can also find information on children’s health and safety.
CDC’s Division of Oral Health
Tooth decay (cavities) is one of the most common chronic diseases of childhood in the United States. Untreated tooth decay can cause pain and infections that may lead to problems with eating, speaking, playing, and learning. CDC’s Division of Oral Health provides information on what parents and caregivers can do to ensure good oral health for your child.
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020–2025 pdf icon[PDF-30.6MB]external icon
These guidelines provide science-based advice for Americans on what to eat and drink to promote health, reduce chronic disease, and meet nutrient needs. The 2020–2025 edition provides recommendations for all life stages, including infants and toddlers.
Feeding Guidelines for Infants and Young Toddlers: A Responsive Parenting Approachexternal icon
This report presents recommendations for promoting healthy nutrition and feeding patterns for infants and toddlers from birth to 24 months, with an emphasis on dietary quality, portion sizes, and mealtime environment.
Healthy Childrenexternal icon
This website was developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics for parents. It features thousands of articles in English and Spanish on children’s health and safety, as well as interactive tools.
United States Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)external icon
The WIC Program provides support to low-income pregnant, postpartum, and breastfeeding women, babies, and children up to age 5. WIC provides nutritious foods, information on healthy eating, breastfeeding promotion and support, and referrals to health care.
United States Department of Agriculture Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)external icon
SNAP provides benefits to low-income individuals and families and provides economic benefits to communities.
Feeding and Beverage Recommendationsexternal icon
Healthy Eating Research, a national program of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, offers science-based recommendations for parents and caregivers. Tips are available for feeding children from birth through 24 monthsexternal icon and beverages for children from birth through 5 yearsexternal icon. Tips for older children are also available.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Advice About Eating Fishexternal icon
The U.S. FDA and EPA provide advice regarding eating fish. This advice can help people make informed choices when it comes to the types of fish that are nutritious and safe to eat. It is especially important for those who might become pregnant, who are pregnant, or who are breastfeeding, as well as for parents and caregivers who are feeding children. This advice supports the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.
Top of Page
CDC’s Breastfeeding Information
CDC’s Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity (DNPAO) is committed to increasing breastfeeding rates throughout the United States. CDC provides information for public health professionals and others to help support breastfeeding mothers, such as managing breastfeeding during various maternal and infant illnesses and conditions, any precautions for vaccines during breastfeeding, and recommendations for proper storage and handling of expressed human milk.
International Lactation Consultant Association (ILCA)external icon
ILCA is the member association for professionals who care for breastfeeding families. ILCA’s “Find a Lactation Consultant Directory” can help you find a lactation consultant to get the breastfeeding support you need.
United States Lactation Consultant Association (USLCA)external icon
USLCA is a professional association for International Board Certified Lactation Consultants (IBCLCs) and other health care professionals who care for breastfeeding families. USLCA’s “Find an IBCLC” can help you find a lactation consultant to get the breastfeeding support you need.
WIC, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children—Breastfeeding Support external icon
The United States Department of Agriculture Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Breastfeeding Support website includes resources for expectant and current mothers about breastfeeding, overcoming common challenges, and thriving to make breastfeeding work for their families.
La Leche League USAexternal icon
La Leche League USA helps mothers to breastfeed through mother-to-mother support, encouragement, information, and education and promotes a better understanding of breastfeeding as an important element in the healthy development of the baby and mother.
Office on Women’s Healthexternal icon
The Office on Women’s Health’s vision is for all women and girls to achieve the best possible health outcomes. They provide information on breastfeeding to help women make infant feeding decisions and to guide mothers through the breastfeeding process.
Top of Page
Questions & Answers for Consumers Concerning Infant Formulaexternal icon
The U.S. Food & Drug Administration regulates infant formula and has a list of questions and answers about infant formula.
Infant Formula Do’s and Don’tsexternal icon
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration provides information on infant formula preparation and storage, as well as other tips on how to keep infant formula safe.
Top of Page
Food Safety Concerns for Children Under Fiveexternal icon
Food safety is particularly important for young children. Foodsafety.gov provides information on safely preparing food for your child.
Top of Page
Fruits & Veggies—Have a Plant Movementexternal icon
A resource designed to help spread the word about the health benefits of adding more fruits and veggies to your diet.
USDA MyPlate Kitchenexternal icon
This online tool features a large collection of recipes and resources to support building healthy and budget-friendly meals. Site features include:
- Extensive search filters on cuisine, cooking equipment, nutrition content, and more.
- Detailed nutrition information.
- Cookbooks to browse and download or build your own.
- Recipe star ratings, review comments, and sharing on social networks.
Video Series on How to Introduce Solid Foods
1,000 Days has developed helpful videos about introducing solid foods to your baby. Topics include:
- Is your baby ready to start eating foods?
- What is a good first food for your baby?
- What to expect when introducing first foods
- How much should I feed my baby?
- How to win at mealtimeexternal icon
- What foods should my baby avoid?
- What should your baby eat in the first year?
Top of Page
Vitamins and Minerals
Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheetsexternal icon
The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements has fact sheets for consumers and health professionals about vitamins, minerals, and dietary supplements.
Top of Page
rating of the top 10 Russian and foreign brands with reviews according to KP
Goods for children are always under special quality control. Including food. After all, food for a baby is not only a way to satisfy hunger, but also acquaintance with different tastes and a guarantee of healthy development (1). Today there are many different brands. Among them, we selected the best manufacturers of baby food, based on the reviews of parents and expert opinions.
Rating of the top 5 Russian baby food manufacturers according to KP
There are many popular brands among Russian manufacturers of baby food. Basically, various purees, juices, cereals and dairy products are presented on the market. There are also formulas for babies, but in smaller quantities. The popularity of food is due to high quality and rather low (in comparison with foreign analogues) price.
1. "Agusha""Agusha". Photo: yandex.market.ru
Agusha is one of the most popular manufacturers of baby food in Russia. The trademark appeared in 1992 and has a wide range of products for children of all ages. Newborns are offered powdered milk formulas, babies from 4 months - a variety of purees, sour-milk products, water, older children - ready-made cereals (both dairy and non-dairy), juices, fruit drinks, compotes and fruit bars for a snack.
Thanks to the availability and variety of products, the manufacturer is confidently holding onto the Russian market. The safety and quality of Agushi is also confirmed by some neutral studies. For example, fruit cottage cheese, as well as kefir from this brand, received the highest rating from Roskachestvo (2, 3).
However, some parents are confused by the rather high price of certain items.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, Dry Milk mixes, porridge, fruit bars||, recommended ages||C Founded||1992|
Pros and cons
There are mixtures in the product line; a wide range of.
High price for some items.
2. FrutoNyanyaFrutoNyanya. Photo: yandex.market.ru
FrutoNyanya baby food brand products are distinguished by a wide range and wide distribution in stores. Among the products of the brand you can find: a variety of cereals (with additives in the form, for example, pieces of fruit or without them), vegetable, fruit and meat purees, water, dairy products, juices, fruit drinks and nectars, snacks. For children prone to acute reactions to certain products, a special line of hypoallergenic food is offered.
Some of the brand's products have received high ratings from Roskachestvo, for example, biocurd, buckwheat porridge (4, 5).
Nutrition from this brand is designed for both the first complementary foods and for babies after a year. The composition contains salt and sugar, which are not recommended for children under one year old.
|Assortment||purees, drinks, soups, snacks, cereals, snacks, water|
|Recommended age||from 0 months|
Pros and cons
May contain allergenic ingredients (eg sugar).
3. "Grandmother's Lukoshko""Grandmother's Lukoshko". Photo: yandex.market. ru
The manufacturer has been present on the Russian market since 1999. The main product is a variety of purees, which are available in glass jars and soft packs. For example, apple puree from this brand received the highest rating from Roskachestvo in all analysis criteria and was awarded the Quality Mark (6).
For older children, prepared meals, meatballs, healthy snacks such as fruit lozenges and biscuits are available. Also, "Babushkino Lukoshko" produces children's herbal teas. Salt in some products is not always welcomed by parents.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, finished lunch, drinks, fruit pastures|
|Recommended age||from 4 months|
Pros and cons
Relatively low price in the segment; varied products.
There may be undesirable auxiliary components in the formulation (eg salt).
4. "Subject""Subject". Photo: yandex.market.ru
"Theme" offers products for children from 4 months to 3 years. The assortment includes a variety of meat, fish and vegetable purees, dairy products, ready meals and juices. But fruit purees are not presented. Packaging 一 is one of the distinguishing features of the brand. Thanks to special tin cans, the products are reliably protected from sunlight, which prolongs the shelf life. Also, many products of the brand are available in non-spill packages, so it is convenient to take them with you on the road. According to the results of the research, cottage cheese and juice "Theme" received the highest rating from Roskachestvo (7, 8).
5. DiaperDiaper. Photo: market.yandex.ru
All ingredients for production are supplied from our own farm. The manufacturer claims that thanks to this, it is possible to set fairly low prices for products.
The potential buyer is offered fruit and vegetable purees (some with cottage cheese), soups, various juices and fruit drinks, as well as water. Some of the products are hypoallergenic. The composition does not contain unnecessary components: salt, sugar and preservatives. Meat and fish products are not represented in the product line.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, cream-soups, cereal|
|Recommended age||C 40 months of||° Cite.||2005|
Pros and cons
Low price in the segment; simple and clear structure.
Lack of meat and fish products in the assortment.
Rating of the top 5 foreign manufacturers of baby food according to KP
There are many foreign companies that produce baby food on the Russian market. A century of history, many years of experience and a good reputation helps to supply the market with quality products, which are preferred by many parents.
1. GerberGerber. Photo: yandex. market.ru
The assortment of the American manufacturer includes products for children from 4 months. In supermarkets and online sites, you can find vegetable and fruit purees, cereals, healthy snacks, juices, and desserts (cottage cheese treats, smoothies, and others). Hypoallergenic food is also provided. For example, dairy-free buckwheat porridge of this brand is highly appreciated by Roskachestvo experts, who noted the safe composition of the product without dangerous and harmful substances, including no added sugars (9).
The manufacturer claims that the high prices are due to the corresponding quality, which is ensured by strict standards and adherence to technology.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, porridge, snacks, desserts|
|Recommended||°||from 4 months||from 4 months||СО 4 months of||from 4 months of0022|
Pros and cons
Hypoallergenic products; natural composition; high quality.
High price in the baby food segment.
2. HiPPHiPP. Photo: yandex.market.ru
German manufacturer's products are suitable for children from birth. Infants are offered hypoallergenic powdered milk formulas enriched with vitamins. For feeding - various purees, cream soups, cereals, and as a snack for older children - snacks and dairy desserts.
Meals are made exclusively from natural ingredients, without added sugar. The high price, according to the manufacturer, is due to the use of special technologies and high-quality products.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, cereals, drinks, snacks, dry dairy mixtures|
|Recommended age9 months 9 months 9 months 9.0025|
|Country of origin||Germany|
Pros and cons
Natural composition; There are baby formulas in the assortment.
High price of products.
3. Fleur AlpineFleur Alpine. Photo: yandex.market.ru
Natural baby food of premium quality. The range includes purees, cereals, cookies and juices - both regular and for children prone to allergies or intolerant to gluten. In addition to the usual products, the manufacturer offers olive oil (from 6 months) and sauces (from 3 years).
From time to time, the products of this brand come under the attention of experts from Roskachestvo and Roskontrol. For example, Three cereals porridge showed excellent results: a good composition with dietary fiber and no foreign impurities, the appropriate taste, color and smell (10), and buckwheat porridge meets the advanced standards of Roskachestvo, except for the increased protein content (11).
Not all products on the official website can be purchased in a regular store. However, they can be purchased on marketplaces.
High price; Not all brand products are easy to find on offline sites.
4. SemperSemper. Photo: yandex.market.ru
The Swedish company offers a wide range of products for children of all ages. Dry milk formulas are suitable for newborns, and there are even specialized ones that are best used for constipation. Some of them are designed for babies older than six months. For crumbs older than 4 months, the manufacturer offers a variety of vegetable, meat, fish and fruit purees, cereals, juices and children's tea with vitamins. In addition to the usual products for children, there are wellings — oatmeal and multi-cereal porridges with natural additives, cookies, and meatballs.
Roskachestvo examined this brand's applesauce and, apart from its high carbohydrate content (higher than indicated on the package), found no drawbacks (12). In addition, some purees contain starch.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||Dairy mixtures, puree, cereals, drinks, cookies|
|Recommended age||° 0 months° 0 months0025|
|Country of origin||Sweden|
Pros and cons
There are mixtures in the product line interesting combinations of flavors.
High price in the segment; the presence of starch in the puree; the product according to BJU may differ from that stated on the package.
5. HeinzHeinz. Photo: yandex.market.ru
American food company offers a wide range of products at affordable prices. There are fruit, vegetable and meat purees, cereals (dairy and non-dairy), soups and drinks. As a healthy snack for babies from 5 months, special cookies are suitable, and fruit and cream puddings will be a great dessert for older children. You can also find a special vermicelli that will suit crumbs from 6 months. The manufacturer's porridges received the highest rating from Roskachestvo (13). However, some products contain sugar and starch, which many parents of babies do not approve of.
The main characteristics
|Assortment||puree, soups, vermichel, pudding, cookies, tea|
|Recommended ageC C C 9 months .||USA|
|Year of Manufacture||1869|
Pros and Cons
Product contains prebiotics; affordable price in the segment of baby food from foreign manufacturers.
Some products contain sugar and starch.
How to choose the right baby food
A child's menu may differ from another baby's diet, not only because of age, but also due to health conditions (for example, a tendency to constipation or a dairy allergy) and personal preferences. However, the first thing to consider is age. It’s also important to keep in mind that your baby’s diet should be free of added salt and sugar (14). Certain positions deserve some explanation.
Designed for feeding babies. In fact, they are designed to become an alternative to mother's milk. For the full development of the crumbs, it is necessary that vitamins and trace elements are present in the composition.
Introduced from 4 months. There are fruit, vegetable, meat and fish options. Combinations are also possible. For the first feeding, it is recommended to choose one-component purees from vegetables or fruits.
Porridges, as well as mashed potatoes, are recommended to be offered to a baby from 4 months. Thanks to the special processing of cereals, baby porridge is easily boiled, which significantly saves cooking time.
You can give your baby juice or nectar from the age of 4 months. As long as it doesn't contain sugar. If available, it is better to wait at least up to 1 year.
Reviews of doctors about manufacturers of baby food
一 Baby food is becoming an object of special attention on the part of the state and parents, 一 says pediatrician Ekaterina Mikhaltsova . - The main advantages of industrial products and dishes are ease of use, balanced composition and minimal cooking time. However, you must strictly follow the age recommendations and cooking rules indicated on the labels.
- Dairy products and baby food in particular are complex production products where quality control is essential at all stages. Therefore, it is better to trust large manufacturers, - explains sanitary doctor Nikolai Dubinin . - It is important to pay attention to the composition and, before offering the child, taste the food yourself. In general, doctors agree that commercially produced baby food is no worse than home-cooked. And some are even better, due to supplements in the form of vitamins and trace elements.
Popular questions and answers
We answer the most common questions about baby food together with pediatrician Ekaterina Mikhaltsova and sanitary doctor, epidemiologist Nikolai Dubinin.
How to choose food for the first feeding?
Pediatricians recommend starting the first complementary foods with vegetable puree. Fruits contain a large amount of fructose, which can irritate the lining of the stomach and other organs of the gastrointestinal tract. Of course, the parent himself can boil and grind vegetables to a puree-like consistency, but it is easier to purchase products in the store, since baby food is made in compliance with special technologies, taking into account all the rules and regulations.
Another question is how to choose a brand among such a variety of baby foods. The best solution is to stick with a well-known brand. Large companies care about their reputation, and therefore strictly follow all established quality standards and do not violate production technology.
The next step is to study the information on the label, make sure the quality, evaluate the following indicators:
• Natural composition. Preservatives, salt, sugar and other ingredients should not be present in the composition (at least in products for children under 1 year old).
• Consistency (grinding quality). A good puree should be smooth and without lumps.
• Multi or single ingredient . The first puree should contain only one ingredient. The child should get used to a certain vegetable, after which it will be possible to introduce others, adding each one in turn, so that the baby gets used to everything individually.
• Hypoallergenic product. Formula must not contain ingredients that can cause an allergic reaction.
• Package integrity . It is important to inspect the container in detail for dents, scratches or cracks (chips). Tightness must be observed. Don't forget to check the production date.
• Appropriate for the age of the child . The age for which this or that product is designed is usually indicated on the packaging in compliance with the recommendations of pediatricians.
When all these factors are taken into account, it can be said that the product is really suitable for the child and will not cause side effects (15).
Which of the Russian manufacturers should I pay attention to?
Baby food brand Agusha has been producing products for over 30 years. The assortment has everything you need for a complete diet for kids: dairy products, cereals, fruit, vegetable and meat purees, juices and compotes. The company produces safe, hypoallergenic, complete nutrition for children of all ages. High-quality substitutes for breast milk and subsequent complementary foods are also produced. It is also recommended to pay attention to the manufacturers "FrutoNyanya" and "Theme".
What composition should healthy baby food contain?
When choosing puree in jars, pay attention to the composition. The ingredients should be natural, a good option (especially for younger kids) if the puree is a one-component puree - a fruit or vegetable plus water. Please note that the product does not contain salt, flour, starch, dyes and preservatives, and is not too diluted with water. The vegetable itself may contain starch, but its additional additives are very undesirable.
- Once again about baby food. Ladodo K. S. 2003.
- Roskachestvo rating. Children's cottage cheese "Agusha". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/tvorog-detskiy-fruktovyy-agusha-multifruktovyy-s-massovoy-doley-zhira-3-9/
- Roskachestvo rating. Children's kefir "Agusha". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/kefir-agusha-s-massovoy-doley-zhira-3-2-dlya-pitaniya-detey-starshe-8-mesyatsev/
- Roskachestvo rating. Biocurd "FrutoNyanya". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/biotvorog-frutonyanya-yabloko-obogashchennyy-vitaminom-d3-s-massovoy-doley-zhira-4-2-dlya-pitaniya-d/
- Roskachestvo rating. Buckwheat porridge "FrutoNyanya". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/frutonyanya-pervyy-vybor-grechnevaya-kasha/
- Roskachestvo rating. Apple puree "Babushkino Lukoshko" URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/pyure-fruktovoe-gomogenizirovannoe-sterilizovannoe-dlya-pitaniya-detey-rannego-vozrasta-s-4-mesyatse/
- Roskachestvo rating. Biocurd "Theme". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/biotvorog-tyema-obogashchennyy-bifidobakteriyami-s-grushey-dlya-detskogo-pitaniya-massovaya-dolya-zh/
- Roskachestvo rating. Apple juice "Theme". URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/sok-yablochnyy-vostanovlennyy-osvetlennyy-dlya-detskogo-pitaniya/
- Roskachestvo rating. Buckwheat porridge Gerber. URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/bezmolochnaya-kasha-gerber-grechnevaya/
- Roskachestvo rating. Porridge "Three cereals" Fleur Alpine. URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/kasha-fleur-alpine-tri-zlaka-/
- Roskachestvo rating. Buckwheat porridge Fleur Alpine. URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/kasha-grechnevaya-gipoallergennaya-fleur-alpine/
- Roskachestvo rating. Applesauce Semper. URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/pyure-iz-yablok-fruktovoe-sterilizovannoe-dlya-detskogo-pitaniya-s-4-mesyatsev-semper/
- Roskachestvo rating. Buckwheat porridge Heinz. URL: https://rskrf.ru/goods/grechnevaya-kashka-heinz-bezmolochnaya-nizkoallergennaya/
- Baby food safety. Zakharova I.N., Aisanova M.R. 2019.
- Classification of baby food products, requirements for their quality and safety. Georgieva O.V., Pyrieva E. A., Kon I.Ya. 2018.
how to choose the right baby food and what is the best?
The ideal "baby food" for an infant is breast milk. However, not all mothers can breastfeed their baby, usually this is due to the health of the mother or child. It happens that the woman herself has a serious condition after childbirth and in the early postoperative period, reduced lactation or diseases in which breastfeeding is contraindicated. In such cases, the baby is given formula milk - this is the only alternative to mother's milk. Subsequently, at four to seven months, complementary foods should be introduced into the child's diet, regardless of whether he is breastfed or artificial. The mother is faced with the task of choosing the right baby food for complementary foods.
In this article, we will talk about what foods for babies are and how to choose the best baby food.
Legislation defines "baby food" as food products that meet the physiological needs of a child under 14 years of age. And nutrition for young children is food intended for children from birth to three years. It is necessary to make a diet taking into account the age of the baby and the characteristics of his physical condition.
The Union of Pediatricians of Russia created the National Program for feeding children in the first year of life and the National Program for optimizing the nutrition of children from one to three years old . They describe recommendations regarding what formula to feed the baby from birth, how to introduce complementary foods and expand the baby's diet. These programs provide detailed information on what nutrients and nutrients should be included in the diet of children of different ages.
First you need to figure out what kind of baby food is . Products for toddlers can be divided into two categories:
Milk formulas. There are for children from birth to six months (formula 1 mixtures, or initial), from six months to a year (formula 2) and from a year (formula 3). The composition of such baby food is adapted, that is, as close as possible to the composition of breast milk.
- In the initial mixtures, the amount of protein is reduced to 1.2-1.5 g / 100 ml - in accordance with the composition of breast milk. They also changed the fat and mineral profile. The initial mixtures are enriched with such an essential amino acid as taurine, and micronutrients, probiotics, vitamins.
- After six months, the baby's need for protein increases, mother's milk changes its composition. And babies on artificial feeding begin to be fed with a more nutritious mixture of formula 2. Taurine is no longer always needed: the body of a baby aged from six months to a year is able to synthesize this amino acid itself. Meanwhile, the content of iron, calcium, zinc increases compared to the initial mixtures, because by this age the child's reserves of minerals received from the mother during pregnancy are depleted, and they need to be replenished.
- A child's diet changes after one year - he is already able to eat a variety of solid foods. However, it is advisable to continue to feed him with a mixture, though already formula 3. Pediatricians recommend it as a source of vitamins and minerals that the baby can easily absorb.
Complementary foods As we have already noted, it is introduced when the baby is four to seven months old. This interval is referred to as the "critical window" and is considered optimal for initiating complementary foods for several reasons:
- The baby needs a wider range of minerals, vitamins and other nutrients. In addition, his baby's digestive system is already ready to accept more solid and complex foods than mother's milk or infant formula.
- At this age, the child develops an interest in food, and it is necessary to offer him the right foods to develop his taste.
- During this period, the risk of developing a food allergy to a new product is lower.
- Timely introduction of complementary foods prevents the risk of micronutrient deficiencies and iron deficiency anemia.
Usually the first food is vegetable puree or monocomponent gluten-free cereals, dairy or dairy-free. Over time, cereals containing gluten, supplements from fruits and berries, and also consisting of several cereals are added. A six-month-old child can already be given several types of vegetables and cereals. Also, at about six months, they begin to give meat puree, then fruit, and from eight months - fish. A child from seven months is allowed the yolk.
From the age of 12 months, complementary foods already make up the majority of your baby's diet. At this age, it is especially important to diversify the child's diet: he can be given soups with small pieces of vegetables, meat, fish and cereals.
During the first feeding, the child's eating habits are laid, and it depends on the parents how correct they will be. Often, mothers introduce fruit juices into complementary foods too early. And because babies have an innate preference for sweet tastes, they can become naughty and stop eating the unsweetened foods they need, especially vegetables. Unhealthy taste habits are formed, which can later provoke obesity.
Domestic doctors are concerned about such irrational nutrition of young children - due to the wrong approach to nutrition, many babies experience a deficiency of vitamins and an excess of fast carbohydrates.
How to choose baby foods
Finding the right foods for your baby is not an easy task. Store shelves are bursting with boxes, jars and bottles, and manufacturers write on every second package that the baby will be healthy, strong and cheerful after feeding. Of course, the baby will receive the necessary substances, no matter what product his parents choose, because all the production of baby food is strictly controlled by the state. By the way, Russia has some of the most stringent requirements for the quality of baby food in the world.
However, products for children differ in their properties. It is necessary to select food so that by the end of the first year of life the baby has actively developed chewing skills and an interest in independence, and the diet of complementary foods is reasonably varied.
For children from one to three years of age, the diet should be even more varied. It is important that the child receives daily something new from the main food groups: dairy, vegetables and fruits, meat and fish, cereals, butter and vegetable oil. Of course, the baby's diet should be expanded taking into account his state of health.
When organizing the nutrition of a child from the moment of introduction of complementary foods and up to three years, a mother needs not only to know what can be fed, but also to consider what foods should not be included in the diet. Among the prohibited products for children under three years of age:
- any mushrooms, vegetables and fruits in a marinade;
- pickles, preserves in tomato sauce;
- commercial juice concentrates, carbonated drinks, coffee and strong tea;
- various seasonings - mustard, ketchup, hot sauces, horseradish, pepper, vinegar, mayonnaise;
- products with flavorings, industrial colors, including chewing gum;
- margarine and refractory fats - lamb, pork;
- chocolates, sweets, other sweets.
To choose the right baby food, you need to know exactly what to look for and what not to worry about.
When choosing blends, it is important to check:
- Absence of palm oil. Formula manufacturers may use palm oil (or rather palm extract) because, like breast milk, it is rich in palmitic acid. However, in human milk, palmitic acid is in the beta position, while in palm oil it is in the alpha position. Such alpha-palmitic acid can interfere with the absorption of calcium and fats and is generally less well absorbed by the child's body. This can negatively affect the work of the intestines, lead to constipation, regurgitation. Milk fat is better suited for baby food as a source of palmitic acid.
- Protein ratio. Human milk protein is primarily whey proteins and casein. A child needs both types of protein, while proteins are easily digested, which cannot be said about casein. If baby food contains a lot of casein, it stays longer in the digestive tract, which can cause problems with the baby's stool.
- The presence of additional functional elements in the composition - lutein, nucleotides, pre- and probiotics. The task of lutein is to protect vision from ultraviolet rays. Nucleotides are low molecular weight compounds that promote the growth of beneficial bifidobacteria in the intestines. And pre- and probiotics in the composition of infant formulas help to establish comfortable digestion.
When choosing complementary foods, pay attention to:
- Age appropriate. It is important that in the diet of a child under three years of age who receives complementary foods, special children's products predominate - in their composition the components are selected taking into account the age-related needs of the baby's body. It is impossible at an early age to transfer children to "adult" foods like pickles, smoked foods, fast food, and so on.
- Fortified foods. It is important that the composition contains vitamins and minerals. The National Child Nutrition Optimization Program recommends choosing complementary foods that contain elements designed to prevent anemia, rickets, and vitamin deficiencies.
- For a varied diet. The menu for a baby up to six months is quite monotonous. But as they grow older, the baby needs more various nutrients - proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals.
- Depending on the individual reaction of the baby. If the child is already receiving complementary foods, then it is worth introducing a new product only after the previous one has been fully introduced. If the baby is allergic to the product, then it should be administered carefully, carefully checking the reaction of the body.
Ingredient safety testing is optional. Of course, the content of any "chemistry" in the product for feeding a child, whether it be a mixture or complementary foods, is unacceptable. There is no need to worry about this: baby food is carefully checked. If it is registered on the territory of the Customs Union and hit the shelves, then it complies with SanPiN 188.8.131.520-05 and there will be no "prohibited" components in its composition. Also, contrary to popular misconception, in Russia it is forbidden to use GMOs in children's products.
Baby food in jars (usually puree) has a short shelf life after opening, as it does not contain preservatives. However, before the jar is opened, the products can stand for quite a long time on the shelves of stores or in the refrigerator at home. This is possible thanks to a special production technology, sterilization and vacuum packaging. If a soft pop is heard when opening the jar, this is a good sign: the puree is not spoiled. But products in jars with swollen lids or a protruding bottom should not be used: microorganisms already multiply in such food, it is not suitable for food.
Features of the choice of dairy products
It is necessary to choose dairy products for babies, following the recommendations of a doctor. The specialist will take into account the health of the baby, especially if he is allergic to cow protein. In Russia, such an allergy occurs in 30–40% of children . Such a reaction may occur due to hereditary predisposition and immaturity of the body. But most often, allergies go away when the child grows up.
Goat milk baby food may be a suitable option for young children with a predisposition to allergies. Its protein is perceived by the body better than cow's: alpha-s1-casein, contained in large quantities in cow's milk, makes a product based on it difficult to digest - food stagnates in the baby's gastrointestinal tract, motor skills are disturbed, as a result, allergies often occur. In goat milk, as in breast milk, there is practically no alpha-s1-casein . Therefore, goat's milk, and hence the mixture based on it, are better absorbed.
Of course, with the introduction of complementary foods, other dairy products will appear in the baby's diet. Unadapted fermented milk drinks, such as kefir, yogurt, biolact, can be introduced into the diet from eight months and in an amount not exceeding 200 ml.