Best way to formula feed baby

Bottle feeding advice - NHS

If you're planning to bottle feed with expressed breast milk or infant formula, these tips will help you feed your baby and keep them safe and healthy.

If you decide to use infant formula, first infant formula (first milk) should always be the first formula you give your baby. You can use it throughout the first year.

Buying bottle feeding equipment

You'll need several bottles, teats and a bottle brush, as well as sterilising equipment, such as a cold-water steriliser, microwave or steam steriliser.

There's no evidence that 1 type of teat or bottle is better than any other. Simple bottles that are easy to wash and sterilise are probably best.

Making up bottles for your baby

Make sure you sterilise bottles and teats until your baby is at least 12 months old. Wash your hands thoroughly before handling sterilised bottle and teats.

If you're using infant formula, follow the instructions on the packaging carefully when you make up the feed.

See how to make up baby formula.

How to bottle feed your baby

Bottle feeding is a chance to feel close to your baby and get to know and bond with them. Babies will feel more secure if most feeds are given by you, your partner or their main caregiver.

Make sure you're sitting comfortably with your baby close to you. Enjoy holding your baby, look into their eyes and talk to them as you feed them. 

Hold your baby in a semi-upright position for bottle feeds. Support their head so they can breathe and swallow comfortably. 

Brush the teat against your baby's lips and when they open their mouth wide let them draw in the teat.  

Always give your baby plenty of time to feed.

Do not leave your baby alone

Never leave your baby alone to feed with a propped-up bottle as they may choke on the milk.

Keep the bottle horizontal

Gently place the teat into the baby’s mouth. Keep the bottle in a horizontal position (just slightly tipped). This will allow the milk to flow steadily and help prevent your baby from taking in air.

If the teat goes flat while you're feeding, pull gently on the corner of your baby's mouth to release the suction.

If the teat gets blocked, replace it with another sterile teat.

Be guided by your baby

All babies are different. Your baby will know how much milk they need. Some want to feed more often than others. Just follow your baby's lead.

Feed your baby when they seem hungry and do not worry if they do not finish the bottle.

Winding your baby

Your baby may take short breaks during a feed and may sometimes need to burp.

When your baby has had enough milk, hold them upright and gently rub or pat their back to bring up any wind.

Throw away unused milk

Throw away any unused formula or breast milk after you've finished bottle feeding your baby.

Only make up the feed when needed – one feed at a time.

Help with bottle feeding

Talk to your midwife, health visitor or other mothers who have bottle fed if you need help and support.

You'll find the phone number for your health visitor in your baby's personal health record (red book).

Your questions about bottle feeding

Why if my baby does not settle after feeds?

If your baby swallows air while bottle feeding, they may feel uncomfortable and cry.

After a feed, hold your baby upright against your shoulder or propped forward on your lap. Gently rub their back so any trapped air can find its way out.

Your baby may sometimes only burp up a small amount of air.

Why is my baby sometimes sick after feeds?

It's normal for babies to bring up a little milk during or just after a feed. This is called possetting, regurgitation or reflux.  

Keep a muslin square handy just in case.

Check that the hole in your baby's teat is not too big. Drinking milk too quickly can make your baby sick.

Do not force them to take more milk than they want during a feed. This may be distressing for your baby and can lead to overfeeding.

Sitting your baby upright on your lap after a feed may help.

If it happens a lot, or your baby is violently sick, seems to be in pain or you're worried for any other reason, talk to your health visitor or GP.

Can formula make my baby constipated?

When using formula, always use the amount of powder recommended on the packaging.

Do not add extra formula powder. Using too much can make your baby constipated and may cause dehydration.

If your baby is under 8 weeks old and has not done a poo for 2 to 3 days, talk to your midwife, health visitor or GP, particularly if your baby is gaining weight slowly.

Your baby should be gaining weight and have plenty of wet and dirty nappies.

Infant formula and allergies

If you think your baby might be allergic to or intolerant of formula, talk to your GP. If necessary, they can prescribe a special formula feed.

Some formula is labelled as hypoallergenic, but this is not suitable for babies with a diagnosed cows' milk allergy.

Soya formula should only be given to babies under medical supervision.

Always talk to your GP before using hypoallergenic or soya-based formula.

Read more about cows' milk allergy and lactose intolerance.

Get Start4Life pregnancy and baby emails

For information and advice you can trust, sign up for weekly Start4Life pregnancy and baby emails.

The Start4Life website also has more information and advice about expressing and bottle feeding

Formula Feeding FAQs: Getting Started (for Parents)

Whether you plan to formula feed your baby from the start, want to supplement your breast milk with formula, or are switching from breast milk to formula, you probably have questions.

Here are answers to some common questions about formula feeding.

What Supplies Do I Need?

Start with the basics:

  • formula
  • water (tap water is fine, but use bottled if you are concerned about water safety)
  • bottles
  • nipples

Keep burp cloths and a bottle/nipple brush handy.

You don’t need a bottle sterilizer, but do sterilize bottles and nipples by boiling them for 5 minutes before the first use.

What Kind of Bottle Should I Use?

Bottles come in different shapes and sizes. They can be made of glass, plastic, silicone, or stainless steel. Here are some differences:

Plastic bottles are now "BPA-free"— meaning they don't contain the chemical bisphenol A (BPA). This chemical may be harmful and is found in some plastics, but is banned from baby bottles. Years ago, some plastic baby bottles had BPA in them, but none do now.

Glass bottles. Glass bottles can cause injury if broken, but silicone sleeves make them easier to grip and help prevent breaks.

Silicone bottles and stainless steel bottles are newer options. They are unbreakable but tend to be more expensive than plastic or glass.

Some babies do better with certain bottle shapes, vented bottles, or bottles with liners on the inside. You may need to try a few kinds before you find what works best for you and your baby.

To get you through the first week or so, be sure to have enough formula, water, bottles, and nipples.

Over time, you may want to buy more or different kinds of bottles. You also may find it's worth getting other supplies, like a bottle drying rack or special dishwasher basket.

What Kind of Nipple Should I Use?

Nipples can be made of silicone (clear) or latex (brown) with many different shapes. The varieties include standard or traditional nipples, orthodontic nipples, wide-based nipples, and flat-top nipples. Use whatever type your baby seems to prefer.

Nipples also often come in different numbers, "stages," or "flow rates" to reflect the size of the nipple's hole, which affects the flow (i. e., slow, medium, or fast) of formula or breast milk. The holes get bigger as babies get older and are ready to handle faster flows of milk. Flows that are too fast can make younger babies gag by giving them more milk than they can handle. Slower flows may frustrate some babies and make them suck harder and gulp too much air.

Start your newborn on the slowest flow nipple. As your baby gets older, you can increase the flow if you want to. Some babies may be content throughout infancy to use the same kind and size of nipple. If your baby seems fussy or frustrated with the nipple, try a different kind (like one with a larger hole) to see if it makes a difference.

How Often Should Nipples Be Replaced?

That depends on how the nipples you use hold up to cleaning and everyday use. Check them regularly for signs of wear and replace them about every 2 months or sooner if you notice tears or damage.

What Type of Formula Should I Use?

Many different formulas are available these days. Ask your doctor which kind is best for your baby.

Do not try to make your own formula at home. Online recipes may look healthy and promise to be nutritionally complete, but they can have too little — or too much — of important nutrients and cause serious health problems for your baby.

There are many different brands of formula, and all that are made in the United States (name brands, store brands, and generic) must meet strict nutrition and safety standards.

Formula types include:

  • cow's milk-based formulas. Most formulas are made from cow's milk. These formulas have added iron, which babies need. Use only iron-fortified formula, unless your doctor advises you not to.
  • soy-based formulas. These are for babies born with congenital lactase deficiency or galactosemia. This type of formula is also used by parents who do not want their babies to eat animal protein. Give only iron-fortified soy formula, unless your doctor says otherwise. (Many babies who are allergic to cow's milk also are allergic to the protein in soy formulas, so soy-based formulas generally don't help with milk-protein allergies.)
  • hypoallergenic formulas for babies who can't tolerate cow’s milk or soy formulas, like those with allergies to milk or soy proteins. The proteins in hypoallergenic formulas are broken down so they are easier to digest.
  • specialized formulas. These are designed for premature babies.

How Do I Prepare Formula?

Formula comes in three basic forms:

  • powders that require mixing with water and cost the least
  • concentrates, which are liquids that require diluting with water
  • ready-to-use (or ready-to-feed) liquids that can be poured right into bottles. These are the most expensive but are convenient if you're traveling or can't get to a clean water supply.

Carefully follow directions on the label when preparing formula. Do not add more water than directed.

Whatever formula you choose, check the expiration date on all cans and bottles of formula, and don't use formula from leaky, dented, or otherwise damaged containers. Do not water-down formula — this is dangerous, as it reduces the amount of nutrients in each bottle.

Formula Can Be Pricey. How Can I Save Money?

Shop around for the best deals on the formula you've chosen:

  • Take advantage of the free samples and coupons sent to you in the first few months after your baby is born.
  • Clip coupons and sign up for online coupon clubs and apps that let you print and save coupons.
  • Sign up for formula companies' clubs and special programs (through the mail or online) that may offer discounts, coupons, and/or free formula and other products.
  • Compare prices on formula at online retailers. Some online stores have special "mom" clubs that let you save regularly on some products every month.
  • Check for specials at your grocery store, baby store retailer, or local wholesale/bulk items store.

What if I Need Help Paying for Formula?

If you can't afford formula, talk to your doctor or call 211 to help you find local resources. You and your family may be eligible for assistance through:

  • Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)
  • Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP)
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

How to feed ... formula

What would a lactation consultant have to say about formula feeding? Artificial feeding is so common in our society that even the most distant person from the issues of nutrition of young children in one day will be able to master the technique of formula feeding: buy the necessary accessories for this, purchase the mixture recommended by the doctor, observe the feeding process, and draw the missing information from numerous promotional brochures. The term "artificial baby" itself has firmly entered the modern lexicon, and the bottle and pacifier have become the personification of infancy.

Different mothers are needed, different mothers are important

However, according to lactation experts, there is an inexplicable paradox in the issue of formula feeding: the transition to artificial feeding is perceived primarily as a change in the style of child care. A style in which the role of the mother is minimized. Milk replacer first displaces the breast, and then the mother herself - after all, now any other person can feed the baby, and a dummy is enough for him to comfort and fall asleep. Thanks to numerous studies, today we can say with confidence that for an infant, sucking on mother's breast is not only a matter of nutrition. Equally, the process of breastfeeding forms the child's attitude to the world, affects the psycho-emotional development of the crumbs, lays the stereotypes of relationships with other people, and affects the individual's ability to love. Being in the mother's arms, perceiving her as a source of love, care and life support is a logical continuation of the intrauterine existence of the child and ensures its harmonious development.

Therefore, if in your life with the baby the question arose of using mixtures, try to focus on maintaining psychological unity with the baby. Do not deprive yourself of a unique privilege - to be the only one and irreplaceable by anyone in the eyes of the baby! We will tell you about the possible options for organizing mixed and artificial feeding, about the technical details that allow you to preserve the deep emotional connection between mother and baby as much as possible, despite the complete or partial absence of milk.

Formula is a substitute for mother's milk, not mother's breast!

Here it is, the basic principle of supplementing a baby in a mixed feeding situation. What is meant? First: Mom does not use breast substitutes - bottles and pacifiers. The baby receives all the necessary volume of the mixture in ways that do not create “competition” for the mother. Secondly, the baby still receives the breast in full: it is applied to it as often as he needs it; falls asleep at the chest; sucks at night. In general, everything is very simple. This approach will help preserve the amount of milk that mom still has and will not allow you to switch entirely to artificial feeding. It will also insure you against the problem of breast rejection, which is very painful for both the mother and the child, disoriented by the presence of alternative objects for sucking.

Now a few technical details that will help you navigate the choice of supplementary feeding and determine the optimal amount of formula.


The easiest option for supplementary feeding is feeding the baby with a spoon. A clean teaspoon is half full. After the baby opens its mouth wide, the contents are brought in deep enough and poured out to the side, over the child’s cheek (because everything that gets on the tongue, the baby spits out and pushes out). In pharmacies and children's goods stores you can buy special soft spoons. A very convenient spoon is produced by the Swiss company MEDELA - with a bottle on the handle. During feeding, the baby can be kept in a horizontal or semi-vertical position, can be placed in a car seat or stroller. Before offering the baby the next portion of the mixture, you need to make sure that he managed to swallow the previous one. The signal to stop feeding will be the child’s reluctance to open his mouth or swallow: most likely, the baby has satisfied his hunger and now wants to “drink” with his mother’s milk or fall asleep by sucking on the breast. Be prepared for the fact that a certain amount of the mixture will inevitably spill and prepare some kind of rag for wiping.

For some mothers, it is most convenient to give supplements from a pipette. Any pipette with a rounded end will do. The baby can be in a lying position or in a half-sitting position. After filling the pipette, put it in the corner of the child's mouth - so that the liquid spills over his cheek. As with spoon-feeding, take your time, let your baby determine the speed of feeding and the amount he needs at the moment.

Many babies prefer to get formula from a small cup, which is usually recommended for premature babies. Experiment, maybe your baby will also like to sip from a small container. It can be a plastic beaker, a plastic cap, or a doll cup... The main thing is the safe material from which it is made. Separately, we add the need to sterilize the dishes after feeding.

And finally, the best but least known way to offer formula to your baby. This is the so-called Supplementary Feeding System (SNS). In our market, it is also represented by MEDELA. What does this fixture look like? An inverted bottle is put on a small cord around the mother’s neck, at the end of which, instead of a nipple, there is a thin tube attached to the breast next to the nipple. The baby receives the mixture in the very process of sucking the breast! Thus, in this method of supplementary feeding, all the psychological aspects and advantages of breastfeeding are unequivocally preserved, and in parallel, without much hassle, the problem of lack of nutrition for the baby is solved. If you can't buy an SNS, try making one yourself. You can use a cone from a disposable syringe and any thin tube (for example, a nasogastric tube for newborns - sold in pharmacies). The main thing is to catch the idea of ​​​​this way of organizing supplementary feeding, and then - the maternal fantasy knows no bounds, especially if you want to give your child the best ...

There are two main schemes for offering supplementary feeding: “by the clock” and “around dreams”.

  • By the hour: the infant's daily volume of formula is divided into equal portions and given at regular intervals during the day between 6 and 24 hours (for example, 40 grams at 6 o'clock, at 10, 14, 18, 22 o'clock) .
  • Around dreams: supplementary food is offered after waking up and before the next sleep. In this case, the mother should ensure that the volume of the mixture necessary for the baby is collected per day.

There are a few more simple rules for organizing supplementary feeding. They will help you keep your milk as long as possible - and at the same time, lay an even stronger foundation for the physical and mental health of the child.

  • Breastfeed after feeding;
  • Know how to stop in time! Do not insist that the baby eat everything that you have prepared for him - let him control his own nutritional needs.
  • If he spilled something or didn't finish eating this time, do not add the amount of uneaten food to the next portion of supplementary food.
  • Try not to create negative associations with the process of supplementing. If the baby does not like something in it, if he resists and shows dissatisfaction - try organizing the offer of the mixture differently.
  • The lack of milk must be compensated by an excess of physical contact with the mother! Leave the child alone during the day as little as possible, hold him more on your hands, on your knees, wear him in special anatomical devices for carrying children, arrange a night's sleep next to the baby, learn simple baby massage techniques. The baby constantly needs mother's affection and warmth! And not figuratively, but in the most direct sense.

How much?

One of the most important moments in the organization of mixed feeding is the determination of the optimal amount of the mixture per day. It should be noted here that, unfortunately, in our country, the mother’s milk sufficiency is still judged by very indirect signs, such as: how much the baby sucked out of the breast in a certain amount of time, how much the mother can express, how much the baby added to weight, how much the baby sleeps, etc. In international practice, the only reliable test for determining the amount of mother's milk has been adopted: this is the frequency and nature of the discharge of the child. In other words, how many times a day does your baby pee! If the baby receives enough milk, then you will count at least 12 urination per day. So, you can conduct an independent study: during the day, use not diapers, but gauze diapers (or diapers). If the number of wet puddles did not reach 12 during the day, then for the purity of the experiment, it will be necessary to continue the calculations at night. If the baby peed less than 12 times a day, then along with urgent measures (more frequent breastfeeding, refusal of breast substitutes (pacifiers, bottles), organization of night feedings), it is necessary to introduce the optimal amount of the mixture. How to calculate it? Again, your guideline is to increase the number of urinations. Up to about 3 months, the baby needs about 30 ml of supplementary food to pee one extra time (from 3 to 6 months - from 40 to 60 ml). Thus, if your baby wet only 8 diapers per day, then you, having taken urgent measures to increase the amount of milk, at the same time add 120-240 ml of the mixture to his diet. And that's it! After a few days, you can again calculate the number of urination per day - and, in accordance with the result, either reduce the amount of supplementary feeding, or leave it the same, or increase it.

The very fact that you need to supplement with formula should not upset you! As a rule, this is a temporary measure. Even if you have a pronounced hypogalactia (decrease in milk production) - thanks to competent actions, you will be able to feed your baby for a very, very long time! It’s just that in due time the entire volume of the mixture will be gradually replaced by complementary foods - cereals, vegetables, cottage cheese, etc. - and breast milk and your breasts will remain indispensable and in demand.

Supplementation not needed

However, we often see this situation. Mom has enough milk, the baby “walks” well both big and small. But very slowly gaining weight. Or is very restless while suckling. Or refuses to breastfeed at all. And for some reason, those around, despite a sufficient amount of urination, still tend to blame mother's milk for everything and stubbornly insist on the introduction of supplementary feeding. Take your time. First try to find the true causes of the problem. For example, the rate of growth and weight gain is greatly influenced by stress factors. Which, by the way, include difficult births, and infantile "colic", and the treatment of a baby, and painful massage procedures, and simply a lack of mother's attention or inept care ... And restless, with crying, jerky breast sucking can occur due to difficulties in the attachment technique: the baby simply does not know how to suckle the breast correctly. Maybe because of the use of a pacifier or because of the presence of a shortened bridle - and he just needs help to attach to the breast correctly! Children suck on a pacifier or a finger, from which nothing flows ... The state of his health can also be the cause of problems in a baby. Therefore, if by all indicators you are sure that you have enough milk, and for a problem that has arisen, you are strongly recommended to introduce a mixture, arguing that it is “better” and “more useful” - do not rush to buy it. Go to a more competent doctor, one who will not forbid you to breastfeed instead of understanding the situation in depth. Call a lactation consultant. Try to find up-to-date scientific information on lactation issues (for example, on the Internet, in documents of the World Health Organization). Look for support among relatives and friends. Maybe one of them had a similar problem. And in any case - do not lose heart!

The bottle is a mother's breast substitute, not a mother's substitute!

There are situations when breastfeeding failed. Milk did not come after childbirth. There was not enough strength to fight for its preservation. It was not possible for medical reasons. It was not possible to get qualified help in time. There are many reasons. The result is the same: the baby grows on artificial feeding. Many mothers feel this as their guilt, as an inner pain, as an intuitive feeling of incomplete motherhood. Can this state of affairs be changed? Is there a way out of the impasse of spiritual discomfort to the expanses of joy and full-blooded communication with the baby?

Of course have! The first option is to return the milk. Sounds unusual? But there is nothing difficult in this. It's hard, yes. It takes a lot of work and patience. Professional help needed. But it is possible. Both abroad and in Russia, breastfeeding consultants regularly deal with such cases.

The second option is to try formula feeding through the MEDELA Supplementary Feeding System (SNS). This is how, for example, some mothers feed their adopted child. The main condition for using this method is the consent of the baby to suck on your breast! To teach him this, most likely, you will also need the help of a lactation specialist.

And the last option is to use bottles and pacifiers as breast substitutes. But not the one that we often see: a baby rides in a stroller and procrastinates a nipple in his mouth, or a swaddled bag lies alone in a crib and, falling asleep, sucks a bottle. No. In this scenario, some of the love and affection intended in the baby shower for mom is transferred to these nursing accessories. A baby in a difficult moment does not reach for his mother, but for a bottle. Therefore, even at an older age, he will also seek solace on the side. And you just have to grab your head when the child begins a transitional age and the problem of lack of contact and understanding with a teenager becomes an edge.

Psychologists warn about many other negative consequences of artificial feeding. But we will not focus on them. We will just try our best to make up for the lack of breastfeeding with a well-designed infant care style.


Let's talk in order.

The first condition: we make up for the lack of contact with the mother's breast by constant close physical contact between the baby and the mother. We hold it on our hands as much as possible, we carry it on ourselves, we organize skin-to-skin contact (the most undressed baby clung to my mother's body, free from clothes). Practice co-sleeping at night. We regularly take a bath with the baby. We go for walks during wakefulness in the arms of my mother. We master the technique of baby massage (believe me, it's not difficult at all!). We try to do all the homework without leaving the baby alone. Why is it important? During pregnancy, the mother's body gives life to the baby. Quite rightly, the baby expects that this will be the case even after childbirth - mother's breast and her milk will ensure the successful further development of the little man. And the baby, who is bottle-fed, thanks to such continuous bodily communication with her mother, will also not forget that it is she who is the source of his life support and the most reliable assistant in all stages of his growth.

Second condition: adequate use of sucking objects. What is meant? The baby should perceive breast substitutes not as separate, independent objects, but as part of the mother. All the comfort and sense of security that they provide him should be associated only with his mother. Putting this principle into practice leads to a few simple formula feeding rules:

  • Only the mother feeds the baby from the bottle.
  • Only mom offers a pacifier.
  • For suckling, the baby is placed in her arms facing her breast. Nowhere else should the baby suck anything.
  • He falls asleep - as in breastfeeding - in the process of sucking in his mother's arms. If you decide to put a sleeping baby away, wait for the moment when he calmly releases the pacifier from his mouth.
  • Try to get the most comfortable and safe to suck on bottles and pacifiers. Not so long ago, a bottle made in the shape of a mother's breast appeared on the Russian market - in our opinion, the best option for a bottle feeding situation. During feeding, you can hide it under clothes (just like a pacifier) ​​- so that the baby has a complete illusion of sucking at the breast.

Finally, I would like to wish you patience and strength in this so grateful and joyful work - caring for a child. Let's hope that our recommendations will help you establish and maintain a tender and deep relationship with him for life!

Maria Gudanova
lactation consultant

feeding rules, types of formulas, tips for breastfeeding mothers

If breastfeeding is not possible, do not be upset: modern technologies make it possible to achieve maximum compliance of artificial feeding with all healthy nutrition standards. We talk about the basic rules of artificial feeding and common mistakes.

Website editor



weight loss



VOICE recommends

The health of a newborn is directly dependent on his nutrition.

⚡️⚡️⚡️ TO STAY CONNECTED NO matter what, LOOK FOR US IN Yandex.Zen, VK, Telegram, Odnoklassniki.

If you can breastfeed, great, this is the best food for your baby. But if for some reason natural feeding is not possible, this is not a reason to panic: there are now many healthy mixtures that can replace mother's milk. Study our rules for artificial feeding, and everything will work out!

When to switch to artificial feeding

  • Inability to breastfeed for medical reasons. With some diseases, as well as when taking a number of medications, breastfeeding is prohibited, since milk can be dangerous for the baby due to the content of toxic substances. Sometimes the reason to stop breastfeeding may be the child's disease (for example, cleft lip or severe malformations).
  • Cessation of lactation. If there is not enough milk or it has disappeared completely, there is nothing to do, you need to supplement the baby with mixtures. As a rule, mixed and artificial feeding solve the problem.
  • Impossibility of regular feeding. For example, you can go to work or end up in a hospital, and this is not a reason to starve a child, but a reason to switch to mixed or artificial feeding: the rules for feeding and portion sizes change somewhat.
  • Inadequate nutritious milk from the mother. Sometimes the problem is solved by changing your diet, but if the milk remains watery and the baby is screaming with hunger, then it's time to supplement him with mixtures, and later switch to them completely.
  • The wish of the child's mother. No matter how pediatricians talk about the benefits of breastfeeding, sometimes women who have every opportunity to breastfeed still prefer to give their baby a bottle. Well, that's your right. Just learn first the rules of artificial feeding of infants!

Rules for artificial feeding of a child

1. How to choose a formula?

It is best to consult a pediatrician, but in principle, if the baby is not lactose intolerant, any mixture approved by the Union of Pediatricians of Russia will do. It is great if the mixture contains Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids, they contribute to the harmonious development of the nervous system.

For example, Nutricia's "Malyutka" formula meets all the standards and rules of artificial feeding, is produced according to European technologies with the strictest quality control and is recommended as an alternative to breast milk even for newborns. Nutricia regularly evaluates the quality and demand for its products among consumers and doctors, analyzing the results of independent surveys of pediatricians and mothers with children up to 24 months of age.Iodine, selenium, zinc, iron with enough vitamin C (for better absorption), choline, taurine, L-carnitine are modern ingredients, the amount of which is specially selected in formulas to meet the needs of children.The quality is monitored by the Dutch research center Numico, the milk base for formulas is made in the most environmentally friendly country - Ireland, and production is open in Russia, at a plant in Istra, which received the international ISO 22000 certificate - maximum food safety control who in.

Bibikol New Zealand brand mixture is produced on the basis of wholesome goat milk. The range of the brand includes mixtures for the smallest and older children, and the quality of the products is confirmed by Russian pediatricians. As a rule, formula feeding does not cause serious side effects even during the adaptation period.

The Dutch brand Kabrita also makes milk formulas based on goat's milk, which is easier to digest than traditional cow's milk. The brand's products contain vitamins, microelements and other functional ingredients necessary for the development of the child.

The mixes of another Dutch brand, Friso, are considered among the best due to their high quality. The brand offers mixtures for both newborns and older children. Subject to the rules for artificial feeding, this is an excellent choice for babies of different ages.

2. How do I know if formula is right for my baby?

If possible, the transition to artificial feeding should be done according to the rules, gradually replacing breast milk with formula. Pediatricians believe that adaptation to a new diet in babies under the age of one year takes from 3 to 7 days. During this period, stool changes, gas formation are possible, and this should not be frightened. As a rule, after a week, the baby stops worrying about the tummy and gets used to the new mixture. If this does not happen, it is worth choosing another food for him. For example, instead of the usual milk mixture, offer a fermented milk analogue. Major brands, like Nutricia's Malyutka, always have both options in their product line.

Formula milk can be used from birth

To improve digestion, a pediatrician may recommend fermented milk formula for formula feeding

3. How to choose a feeding bottle?

Feeding bottles are available in plastic and glass, and each has its own advantages, there are no strict rules for artificial feeding in this regard. Plastic ones are safer because they don't break. They are lighter, so it is convenient to take them with you for a walk. Glass is good because it can be sterilized many times, while plastic can deteriorate. Which bottle to choose for a newborn depends on the age of the baby. For the smallest, glassware is better, since sterility is in the first place. For older babies outside the home, it is better to use plastic bottles, but for home feeding, still leave glass bottles.

4. What is the correct way to store baby food?

Prolonged exposure to abnormal temperatures, both low and high, can change the organoleptic properties of the product, affect its solubility, and cause swelling of the foil bag or the protective membrane of the can. In case of repeated heating and cooling of the mixture, especially in winter, further use of the product may cause a painful reaction in the child. Therefore, it is very important to observe temperature control from 0ºС to +25ºС. Formula feeding regulations do not recommend storing the product near heat sources, such as stoves, electric kitchen appliances, radiators, or on a windowsill.

5. How long can I keep formula formula?

Less than an hour. If the baby has not finished eating, and you intend to finish feeding him in 15-20 minutes, you can not prepare a new mixture. But if the baby has eaten enough, and the feeding regimen for artificial feeding provides for the next feeding only after 2.5 - 4 hours, then the leftovers should be poured out, and a new portion should be prepared for the next time.

6. Does my child need probiotic formula?

GOS/FOS prebiotics are natural dietary fibers similar in composition to breast milk prebiotics, they are added as high-quality mixtures to improve digestion. The child quickly and painlessly gets used to such a mixture, absorbs it well and encounters stool disorders less often. Rules for artificial feeding of newborns and older children recommend giving preference to such mixtures, although this is not a strict requirement.

7. How do you know if your baby is eating enough?

You can use the Shkarin formula: The volume of the mixture per day = 800 ml + 50 x (M-2), where M is the number of months of the child's life. But this method is only suitable for babies older than 2 months. For newborns, everything is very individual, since babies are born with different weights and heights, so if you are afraid that the baby is malnourished or overeating, consult a doctor before feeding the baby formula again.

8. Should I change my formula?

If there is no reason to doubt the quality of the mixture and its tolerance by the baby, you should not change your child's usual diet just because the new mixture seems more useful, modern, etc. to you. Replacing the mixture can be a real stress for the child's body. And there is no guarantee that a new diet will not cause any signs of intolerance. Replacing the mixture is justified when passing the next age limit, and even in this case, the rules for artificial feeding recommend remaining faithful to one manufacturer.

9. What is the correct way to mix?

According to the rules of artificial feeding, most mixtures are prepared as follows: boiled water is cooled to a temperature of 50-60 ° C (a higher temperature cannot be used, live bifidobacteria die and some vitamins are destroyed). Pour it into a bottle, add the exact amount of the dry mixture there. Close the bottle, mix the mixture thoroughly, shaking the contents of the bottle. Look at the light so that there are no lumps, the milk should turn out homogeneous. To check the temperature of the food - put a few drops on your wrist or elbow crease (the most sensitive place). The mixture should be slightly warmer than body temperature—i.e. practically not felt.

10. Technique and rules of artificial feeding

How to formula feed correctly? In order to make it comfortable not only for the baby, who should be in a semi-vertical position, but also for the mother during feeding, you can use additional pillows by placing them under the back. The position of the mother's legs can be different: you can put your foot on the foot, you can put a low bench under your feet, you can feed the baby in the prone position, while gently holding the baby. To reduce air swallowing, tilt the bottle so that the milk fills the nipple and the air rises to the bottom of the bottle. Hold your baby upright for a few minutes after feeding to reduce the chance of spitting up.

Mistakes in formula feeding