Why are enzymes used in baby food

Enzymes Essay; Enzymes used in the Baby Food industry - GCSE Science

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Enzymes used in the 'Baby Food' industry Enzymes allow chemical reactions to be carried out under milder conditions (lower temperature and pressure), thus saving costs. Since most supplements are not substrates for enzymes, the enzymes usually do not interact with them. You should be able to mix most supplements and medicines with enzymes. Enzymes may affect the properties of time-released medications increasing the rate at which they are broken-down, and thus, released. The enzymes which are used in baby food are there because they allow the food to be pre-digested in the baby's stomach. ...read more.

The main two enzymes used in the baby food industry are 'protease' and 'lipases'. A protease enzyme is usually used to break down protein it does this when it breaks peptide bonds by a process called hydrolosis. These bonds are linked together to create an amino acid. The best condition for use of protease is in acidic areas. Finally the proteases occur naturally in all organisms. A lipase is a water-soluble enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ester bonds in water-insoluble, lipid substrates. ...read more.

A protease in another industry is not used as it creates a higher mortality rate in the medicine industry for HIV/Aids. This enzyme has therefore been made into an alternate structure but with the same properties but not with the same processes. This in turn creates a social factor to be seen when treating the disease so the scientists have made a new type of ingredient called NNRTI to serve the same purpose as the protease enzyme. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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Enzyme in Food Production - GLOBE




My ChuDo you know the organic compounds found in our saliva can be such useful substances?

​PICTURE 1. Enzyme (from Upadhye, S. P. 2015. Know more your metabolism.)

Nowadays, the use of enzyme is being applied in a broader range of industrial processes. Enzyme application helps to improve the current industrial processes such as in cosmetic products and food processing. The emission of carbon dioxide by the food production in recent time is significantly larger than emission from personal transport. These are strongly influenced by the use of energy in agriculture plus the release of greenhouse gases.
In brief, enzymes are protein molecules, which function as particularized catalysts in chemical reaction and can be found in nature and human body. They destroy and create molecules such as nutrients and speed up all important biological processes. Enzymes work in a moderate condition so that it is environmental friendly than most industrial chemicals. Even though they are quite expensive compounds, enzymes can be immobilized and re-used.
The applications of enzymes in food industry are numerous and commonly known. Our favorite drink Beer, is one of the first famous products, using enzymes in manufacture. Amylase are vital in brewing beer and liquor, even in bread-making (yeast production) because they catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into sugars. Baby foods cannot be produced without enzyme Proteases. It will pre-digest some of the protein in food so that babies can easily absorb the nutrients. Lipases, a cheap and versatile catalyst which also appear in our saliva, play an important role in yogurt and cheese fermentation. According to Gupta (2004), Lipases can act as biocatalysts in forming fuel from vegetable oil. Some enzymes even take charge of modifying the color of food or beverage during the process.
Enzymatic processes are very exclusive, fast and effectively save raw materials as well as chemicals, energy, and water, producing less waste compared to conventional processes. The circumstance of acidification, eutrophication, photochemical ozone formation and land use have been researched to be improved recently with the assistance of potential enzyme technology. The study is using mostly Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an assessment tool, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is also taken in to consideration (Jegannathan and Nielsen, 2013).
In Oxenboll’s and Ernst’s research, they found out that there are significant benefits that we could gain from using enzymes in the food industry. Using the enzymatic process will reduce 44 tons greenhouse gases per 1000 tons refined oil comparing with the caustic process in removing phospholipids from vegetable oil. The increased yield of enzymatic process is the major factor for the amazing results. In the baking industry, enzyme Novamyl (a special Amylase) would help the bread to stay fresh and moist longer. As the consequence, the industry can save money and energy thanks to the decrease in the amount of waste bread. Apart from this, enzymes can also advance the digestibility of animal feed. For example, with using Xylanase for feeding of pigs in all Europe, the carbon dioxide reduction would equal to the emission of nearly 1 million cars, which is about 4 million tons of CO2.
The use of enzymatic processes and enzymes is very promising. According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) estimation in 2030, the reduction of 139 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent could be made due to the uses of enzymes in food industry.
Bang, J.K., Foller, A., Buttazzoni, M. 2009. Industrial Biotechnology: More than green fuel in a dirty economy?. WWF. Read on 19/11/2017. http://www.iwbio.de/fileadmin/Publikationen/IWBio-Artikel/WWF_28-10-2009.pdf
Gupta, R., Gupta, N., Rathi, P. 2004. Bacterial lipases: an overview of production, purification and biochemical properties. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol.
Jegannathan, K. R., Nielsen, P.H. 2013. Environmental assessment of enzyme use in industrial production – a literature review. Journal of Cleaner Production. Elsevier. Volume 42. p228-240.
Oxenboll, K., Ernst, S. Environment as a new perspective of enzymes in the food industry. FS&T. Vol 22, issue 1. https://www.google.fi/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwikpo3j2a_XAhXRh7QKHTNBDl4QFgg1MAE&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.novozymes.com%2F-%2Fmedia%2FProject%2FNovozymes%2FWebsite%2Fwebsite%2Fdocument-library%2FLCAs%2FEnvironment-as-a-new-perspective-of-enzymes-in-the-food-industry.pdf%3Fla%3Den&usg=AOvVaw0KSqzLlqeae_wrTkJBgWhO
Shuang, L. 2012. Technology prospecting on enzymes: Application, Marketing and Engieering. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. Volume 2, Issue 3. Article e201209017.
Upadhye, S. P. 2015. Know more your metabolism. Science Domain. Read on 19/11/2017. https://domainofscience.wordpress.com/2015/02/28/know-your-metabolism/


The importance of proteins for baby food - The physiological importance of nutrients for the child's body. Medical nutrition - School meals

Physiological significance of nutrients for the child's body. Health food

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Proteins are the main component of food. Their main purpose is the construction of cells and tissues necessary for the growth, development and implementation of the vital functions of the body. Proteins are part of immune bodies, hormones, enzymes.

Immune bodies (antibodies) are needed by the body to protect it from various diseases. Hormones take part in metabolism. Enzymes are biological catalysts that accelerate tens and hundreds of thousands of times the biochemical reactions that occur in the body.

In the gastrointestinal tract, food proteins under the influence of digestive juices containing enzymes are gradually broken down to simpler compounds - albumose and peptones, and then to amino acids. The latter are involved in the formation of new proteins characteristic of the human body.

In tissues, simultaneously with the processes of formation of new proteins, the old ones are destroyed, which are excreted from the body in the form of end products of metabolism: urea, ammonia, creatinine and other nitrogen-containing compounds. In healthy children, with a balanced diet, the amount of nitrogen supplied with food (in the composition of proteins) should be greater than the amount excreted (positive nitrogen balance). Nitrogen is used in the body for protein formation, tissue development and growth. With a negative balance of nitrogen and even with a nitrogen balance in the body of a child, the breakdown of its own proteins begins, which gradually leads to exhaustion.

Lack of protein in food leads to profound changes in the body of children: growth slows down, the formation of the skeleton and muscles is disturbed, teeth are affected by caries. This is often accompanied by anemia (anemia) and metabolic disorders.

Insufficient formation of immune bodies , decrease in the body's defenses increases the incidence of children. A permanent deficiency of protein in nutrition negatively affects the mental development of children, they later master speech, lag behind in school. Intellectual abilities can remain persistently reduced even after the elimination of protein deficiency suffered at an early age.

Nutrition with an excess amount of protein , as noted above, is also not good for the child: putrefactive processes intensify in the intestines , products of incomplete oxidation of proteins accumulate in the body, a lot of nitrogenous compounds are excreted in the urine. This complicates the work of the liver and excretory organs.

An excess of proteins , especially of animal origin, leads to an increase in the excitability of the nervous system , contributes to the development of diseases associated with metabolic disorders. 30), egg (12 .7), cottage cheese (14-18), cow's milk (2.8-3.2), and from plant products - legumes (23), bread (5.5-8.3), cereals (7-13) , potatoes (2).

In the daily diet of preschool children the amount of protein should be 13-15% of the total calorie content of the diet; the share of animal proteins in the daily diet for children 1-3 years old is 75-70%, by 6 years old - 65%, at school age - 60-50%.

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Industrial baby food: can you trust?

Author of article Khavkin Anatoly Ilyich


December 27, 2021

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Dear moms and dads! A new tenant has recently settled in your house: restless and requiring special attention. He is demanding in everything, including food. After all, it depends on nutrition how it will grow and develop.

What should be in a baby's diet

It is important to remember that, starting from 4-6 months of life, the child begins to need additional nutritional components that can only be obtained with the help of complementary foods. These are new products and dishes based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, cottage cheese, yolk, meat and vegetable-meat puree, fermented milk products, fish and vegetable-fish puree, and so on. Once again I want to emphasize that the intake of essential nutrients only with human milk or milk formula becomes insufficient by a certain age. In addition to vegetable proteins, minerals, trace elements and vitamins, the introduction of complementary foods contributes to the formation of the chewing apparatus, stimulation of intestinal motility.

By the 4th month of life, the baby's gastrointestinal tract becomes more mature: the increased permeability of the intestinal wall decreases, digestive enzymes mature, and local immunity is formed. By this time, the child acquires the ability to swallow semi-liquid and thicker food, associated with the extinction of the “spoon ejection reflex”.

When to introduce complementary foods?

Experts unanimously came to the conclusion that it is recommended to prescribe complementary foods for children who are exclusively breastfed from 6 months. In this case, the first type of complementary foods should be products with high energy density - cereals or vegetable purees of industrial production, enriched with micronutrients. Children with deviations in the state of health (hypotrophy, anemia, etc.), with malnutrition of nursing mothers, complementary foods are given at an earlier date. After the introduction of vegetable puree or porridge, cottage cheese into the diet, the yolk, meat and fish puree are sequentially introduced.

Home and ready?

In the nutrition of the baby, products prepared both at home and industrial products can be used. The latter have a number of undeniable advantages: they are prepared from raw materials that meet all the hygienic requirements in force in the Russian Federation for raw materials and the production of baby food, they have a guaranteed chemical composition, including vitamins, regardless of the season. And gradually, complementary foods are completely replaced by feeding with breast milk or its substitutes.

If there is a problem

Ready-made dairy-free cereals (buckwheat, rice) are the first to be introduced into the nutrition of a child with frequent stools, insufficient body weight (hypotrophy), food allergies. With excess body weight and constipation, preference is given to vegetable puree.

First food


Porridge should start with gluten-free cereals (rice, buckwheat, and later corn and millet). They can be dairy or dairy-free. In the future, gluten-containing cereals (wheat, barley) and cereals from a mixture of cereals can be used.

Vegetable puree

Vegetable purees are given initially from one type of vegetable with delicate fiber (for example, zucchini), followed by expansion by introducing other vegetables (cauliflower and white cabbage, broccoli, carrots, pumpkins, potatoes, etc.), paying attention to their tolerance. It should be noted once again that industrial mashed potatoes guarantee its quality and safety.

Cottage cheese, egg yolk, meat and fish

Cottage cheese, egg yolk, meat and fish are valuable sources of animal protein, a number of minerals (iron, calcium, phosphorus, etc.) and vitamins A, E, B1, B2, B6, B12, which make it possible to most fully meet the high needs of children in the second half of the year life in these nutrients.

As already noted, at the age not earlier than 8 months, it is possible to introduce specialized fermented milk products baby food into the child's diet, such as yogurts and biolacts .

Complementary feeding rules

When introducing complementary foods, the following rules should be followed.

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