When can babies eat whole foods
When, What, and How to Introduce Solid Foods | Nutrition
For more information about how to know if your baby is ready to starting eating foods, what first foods to offer, and what to expect, watch these videos from 1,000 Days.
The Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend children be introduced to foods other than breast milk or infant formula when they are about 6 months old. Introducing foods before 4 months old is not recommended. Every child is different. How do you know if your child is ready for foods other than breast milk or infant formula? You can look for these signs that your child is developmentally ready.
- Sits up alone or with support.
- Is able to control head and neck.
- Opens the mouth when food is offered.
- Swallows food rather than pushes it back out onto the chin.
- Brings objects to the mouth.
- Tries to grasp small objects, such as toys or food.
- Transfers food from the front to the back of the tongue to swallow.
What Foods Should I Introduce to My Child First?
The American Academy of Pediatrics says that for most children, you do not need to give foods in a certain order. Your child can begin eating solid foods at about 6 months old. By the time he or she is 7 or 8 months old, your child can eat a variety of foods from different food groups. These foods include infant cereals, meat or other proteins, fruits, vegetables, grains, yogurts and cheeses, and more.
If your child is eating infant cereals, it is important to offer a variety of fortifiedalert icon infant cereals such as oat, barley, and multi-grain instead of only rice cereal. Only providing infant rice cereal is not recommended by the Food and Drug Administration because there is a risk for children to be exposed to arsenic. Visit the U.S. Food & Drug Administrationexternal icon to learn more.
How Should I Introduce My Child to Foods?
Your child needs certain vitamins and minerals to grow healthy and strong.
Now that your child is starting to eat food, be sure to choose foods that give your child all the vitamins and minerals they need.
Click here to learn more about some of these vitamins & minerals.
Let your child try one single-ingredient food at a time at first. This helps you see if your child has any problems with that food, such as food allergies. Wait 3 to 5 days between each new food. Before you know it, your child will be on his or her way to eating and enjoying lots of new foods.
Introduce potentially allergenic foods when other foods are introduced.
Potentially allergenic foods include cow’s milk products, eggs, fish, shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, soy, and sesame. Drinking cow’s milk or fortified soy beverages is not recommended until your child is older than 12 months, but other cow’s milk products, such as yogurt, can be introduced before 12 months. If your child has severe eczema and/or egg allergy, talk with your child’s doctor or nurse about when and how to safely introduce foods with peanuts.
How Should I Prepare Food for My Child to Eat?
At first, it’s easier for your child to eat foods that are mashed, pureed, or strained and very smooth in texture. It can take time for your child to adjust to new food textures. Your child might cough, gag, or spit up. As your baby’s oral skills develop, thicker and lumpier foods can be introduced.
Some foods are potential choking hazards, so it is important to feed your child foods that are the right texture for his or her development. To help prevent choking, prepare foods that can be easily dissolved with saliva and do not require chewing. Feed small portions and encourage your baby to eat slowly. Always watch your child while he or she is eating.
Here are some tips for preparing foods:
- Mix cereals and mashed cooked grains with breast milk, formula, or water to make it smooth and easy for your baby to swallow.
- Mash or puree vegetables, fruits and other foods until they are smooth.
- Hard fruits and vegetables, like apples and carrots, usually need to be cooked so they can be easily mashed or pureed.
- Cook food until it is soft enough to easily mash with a fork.
- Remove all fat, skin, and bones from poultry, meat, and fish, before cooking.
- Remove seeds and hard pits from fruit, and then cut the fruit into small pieces.
- Cut soft food into small pieces or thin slices.
- Cut cylindrical foods like hot dogs, sausage and string cheese into short thin strips instead of round pieces that could get stuck in the airway.
- Cut small spherical foods like grapes, cherries, berries and tomatoes into small pieces.
- Cook and finely grind or mash whole-grain kernels of wheat, barley, rice, and other grains.
Learn more about potential choking hazards and how to prevent your child from choking.
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How to Get Started with Baby Led Weaning: A Nutritionist's Guide
by Dana Simkins
Disclaimer: This post contains affiliate links which means I will receive a small commission (at no extra charge to you) should you choose to purchase a recommended product.
If you’re a parent, you may have heard of a style of infant feeding called Baby Led Weaning. I first learned of this approach in my Pediatric Nutrition course while working on my Master’s. I have since used the technique with my own three children! In this post I’ll talk you through all the basics and let you know how to get started with baby led weaning.
What is Baby Led Weaning?
The basic idea is that instead of feeding your baby pureed solids, you offer them whole foods. This allows baby to experience a variety of textures and flavors of food. Rather than being spoon-fed, your baby can regulate his own intake. And research suggests Baby Led Weaning babies are less prone to overeat later in childhood*. Babies have the ability to regulate their food intake based on physical hunger cues, something that becomes increasingly more difficult as we get older. Perhaps the longer we allow them to experience food in that way, the better.What About Purees?
You might be wondering…if she’s a proponent of Baby Led Weaning (BLW), then why are there recipes for pureed baby foods on this site? I’m a strong believer that you should do what works for you in parenting. If you feel that you might better nurture your child by offering pureed foods, or if the BLW approach makes you nervous, trust your instincts. Neither method is the “right” way, they are simply different and may benefit your baby in different ways. Keep reading to find out how I incorporate purees into Baby Led Weaning.Feeling Unsure?
If you’re feeling unsure because other people have told you it’s a bad idea, take a minute to check out my post on Dealing With Doubters. It’s sure to give you a confidence boost and set your mind at ease about how to get started with Baby Led Weaning the right way.
Many moms (including me!) choose to do Baby Led Weaning while still offering purees to their children. There are some foods, like yogurt, that offer great nutritional value for your infant (protein, probiotics) but can be messy to offer to a 6-month old without assistance. I go more in-depth on how to include purees in my Baby Led Weaning Myths post and my Starter Foods post.How to Get Started With Baby Led Weaning
When can I start Baby Led Weaning with my child?
What do I need to get started?
What sort of foods should I be offering?
When should I feed my baby solids? Do I still offer breast milk/formula?
But, my baby has no teeth…how can she chew?
What about choking?
The American Academy of Pediatrics does not recommend offering your baby any solids (pureed or not) before 6 months of age. The majority of infants are not ready to eat solids before then, and there is evidence that it could result in the development of allergies since their digestive systems are not fully developed yet.
6 months is a general recommendation, and of course there are some babies who are ready earlier, and some who might even take a bit longer. All of this should be determined by you and your pediatrician, but generally a baby is ready to go if he/she:
- Shows interest in your food at meal times by leaning or reaching for it
- Can sit up unaided
- Has head and neck control
- Has lost the tongue-thrust reflex, and does not push food out of his/her mouth but is willing & able to swallow
Once you’ve read through this post about how to get started with baby led weaning make sure to prepare yourself with these fun and functional tools! They’ll help minimize the mealtime mess, and make meal prep a breeze.
What sort of foods should I be offering?
The Baby Led Weaning approach means you can offer your baby almost anything you’re eating with a few exceptions.
Be sure any food offered does not have too much salt or added sugar. Too much salt can overwhelm their tiny kidneys and added sugar offers no nutritional value, it just adds empty calories.Do not offer:
- Honey to children under 1 year of age. Honey can contain botulinum toxin which can cause botulism in infants.
- Cow’s milk to children under 1 year of age. Babies can’t handle the proteins in cow’s milk before 1 year of age. However, yogurt and cheese made from cow’s milk are acceptable since the proteins in these food have been partially broken down.
- Small, hard foods like whole nuts, popcorn and peanut butter (on its own) can all be serious choking hazards. These should not be offered to infants.
- Bread (limit to one slice a day since it tends to be high in salt/sugar and may cause constipation)
- Fish high in mercury content such as tuna, mackerel, or swordfish (limit to two servings per week to be safe)
- Processed foods like potato chips, canned soups/sauces, condiments and fried foods tend to be loaded with salt & sugar and offer little to no nutritional value.
- If there is history of food allergy in your family you may want to introduce foods one at a time to be sure there is no adverse reaction. Talk to your doctor about this before starting any solids.
- The following foods can be a choking hazard and should be sliced up before offering to baby: whole grapes, bony fish, fruits with pits (cherries, olives, etc.)
- Fish fingers (tilapia works really well simply breaded)
- Chicken (grilled or roasted, cut into strips)
- Steamed Broccoli Florets
- Steamed Carrots (larger pieces not baby carrots)
- Cavatappi (or other “curly” pasta, like fusilli)
- Sweet Potato “Fries” (cut sweet potatoes into strips and bake until soft enough to mash with your fingers)
- Avocado cut into long pieces
- Pears, apples, cucumber, peeled & cut into long pieces
- Canned/jarred mandarin wedges in water (I recommend these over fresh because there are no seeds)
- Toast strips with hummus spread
- Cheese sticks
- Banana with peel as a handle (see picture below)
When should I be feeding my baby solids? Do I still offer breast milk/formula?
Breast milk/formula should still make up the majority of baby’s diet until 1 year of age. Babies’ tummies are very small, and breast milk/formula is much more nutrient rich than any food. It provides them with everything they need for the first year. You may have heard this saying before, “Food before one is just for fun!” It’s true, for most babies breast milk/formula offers all they need until their first birthday.
The introduction of solid foods before 1 year is a “bonus”, may help avoid the development of allergies and allows them exposure to various flavors and textures.
To be sure your baby is getting enough nutrition from milk, I recommend nursing/offering a bottle before each “meal” of solid foods. This will also assure that your baby is in a good mood and doesn’t get frustrated while trying to eat.
What about choking?
First of all, it is very important that you know the difference between gagging and choking (but also know infant CPR). It is totally normal for your little one to gag a bit as they are learning to eat. It takes a while for them to learn the proper way to move food around their mouth. Here is an example of my son gagging when we began Baby Led Weaning at 6 months. Note how he moves the food around and continues to chew…
Basically, if baby gags but keeps on happily eating and shows no signs of distress, everything is fine. You will know if she’s choking because her eyes will get wide, she won’t be getting any air and she will stop eating. This NEVER happened with with either of my children, and is highly unlikely with Baby Led Weaning.
Because baby is deciding how much food to take in and because BLW encourages chewing rather than sucking, you’ll find babies eat more slowly and very small bits at a time. Offering bigger pieces can help avoid choking, too.
In the unlikely event your baby is actually choking, call 911 immediately and be prepared with infant CPR techniques.Still not sure what to feed baby?
If you still aren’t sure where to begin, I urge you to check out my 4-week Baby Led Weaning Family Meal Plan! It’s a whole month of original recipes for your BLW baby and everyone else under your roof. Cook once, feed everyone! Along with the recipes are super organized shopping lists and serving tips for various ages (6m+).
For everything you need to know about Baby Led Weaning, check out this book by Gill Rapley and Tracey Murkett, the “creators” of Baby Led Weaning. I write that in quotations because they write in their book that parents have been doing this for a very long time, they just gave it a name and came up with tips, tricks and guidelines.
For some Baby Led Weaning recipes, check out Baby Led Feeding . It’s chock full of healthy, tasty options for your little one starting at 6 months! A great tool to get you started with Baby Led Weaning.
Do you think Baby Led Weaning is something you might try? Any tips on how to get started with Baby Led Weaning? Post about your experience/opinion in the comments!
Prohibited foods for children
List of prohibited foods for children.
Feeding a child with illness
What foods should not be eaten by children with various illnesses?
Anxious mood of parents is often associated with the problem of poor appetite of their own child. Moms and dads are worried about what to feed the child so that he eats with appetite and, God forbid, does not lose weight. But most of the problems arise with feeding the baby, when he has health problems and there are severe dietary restrictions. What kind of food should not be eaten by children with this or that disease?
Prohibited foods for children
The small organism grows rapidly and requires proper and balanced nutrition for its development. Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, macro- and microelements are necessary substances for the normal physiological development of muscle and bone tissue, the brain, the proper formation of internal organs: the heart, kidneys, lungs, spleen, liver.
Proper nutrition of a child in the first years of life determines his subsequent health and the possibility of self-realization in adulthood. Therefore, it is important to lay the foundation for proper nutrition from an early age in order to avoid health problems in the future.
What should not be eaten by children under one year old?
Most pediatricians have come to the conclusion that breastfed babies should not receive whole cow's and goat's milk in any form. If a child is deprived of the opportunity to receive mother's milk, then such children are recommended adapted milk formulas for breast milk.
Cow's and goat's milk
Cow's milk is considered heavy food for the baby. It contains a large amount of proteins, fats, mineral salts. The kidneys of the child begin to work with great effort, which leads to their overload. The liquid is excreted in a larger amount than necessary according to the physiological norm, which leads to the thirst of the baby. He receives a new portion of milk, so a "closed ring" is created.
Cow's milk does not contain enough iron for a growing baby. Goat's milk contains less vitamin A than cow's milk, although in other respects it is closest to mother's milk.
The use of cow's milk in the early period of life can lead to the development of diabetes, iron deficiency anemia, and allergic diseases.
In addition, babies under two years of age have not yet formed enzymes that can break down the nutritional components of cow's milk. As a rule, cow's milk is not completely absorbed by the child's body.
IMPORTANT: It is not recommended to give yogurt to children under one year old, as it has a high acidity and contains alcohol.
What should children under 3 not eat?
Sugar and salt
Salt and sugar should not be given to children, at least as long as they can be dispensed with. And it is best not to give these products until the age of three. Since the addition of salt and sugar is considered traditional in cooking, the baby will sooner or later get acquainted with the taste of salted and sweet food in kindergarten or school.
IMPORTANT: As shown by Roskontrol: many children's fermented milk products contain a high percentage of sugar. Therefore, babies should be given unsweetened and not very acidic natural fermented milk products with a short shelf life.
Gone are the days when semolina was considered an indispensable product for baby food. It turns out that semolina contains gliadin, one of the components of gluten that makes it difficult for children's intestines to work. Fitin - another ingredient in semolina, inhibits the absorption of vitamin D and calcium.
Semolina gluten can cause allergic manifestations in a child in the form of red itchy spots. Excessive feeding of semolina often leads to overweight children, which is difficult to get rid of later.
Juice or puree?
Many pediatricians differ in their opinion: is it possible to give children juices of industrial production and their own preparation? Some allow giving juice to babies, other doctors do not recommend drinking juice for babies up to a year and a half, but insist on the use of fruit and vegetable purees. Their motivation is based on the fact that such food is rich in plant fiber and has a beneficial effect on the baby's intestines.
What should children 4-5 years old not eat?
Babies at the age of 4-5 years old parents often transfer to adult food.
IMPORTANT: Dairy and sour-milk products made according to general production standards, and not according to special baby food technology, are of particular danger to children.
Honey is a useful natural product containing many biologically active components, macro- and microelements, and vitamins. But this bee product can cause allergic manifestations. In early childhood, it is better to give up honey and carefully introduce it into baby food later.
Sausages and frankfurters
Sausages and frankfurters are allowed to be given to children after the age of three, prepared according to a special technology for baby food. Labels on such products are usually provided with inscriptions from what age this product can be consumed. There will be no great harm to the health of the child if he eats baby sausages no more than once every two weeks.
IMPORTANT: Roskontrol does not recommend giving young children sausage products intended for adult nutrition. These products contain many ingredients that are harmful to the child's body: preservatives, flavor enhancers, phosphates, nitrites and other harmful substances.
Sweet treats should not be given to babies for a number of reasons:
chocolate contains sugar
cocoa powder can provoke allergies
cocoa butter is difficult to digest in the gastrointestinal tract9 of a child
2 seafood and caviar red caviar is a healthy food product containing a lot of complete protein and other useful components. But this is not food for younger children. Sea food ingredients are very allergenic, besides, seafood products and red caviar are processed with many preservatives and have a strong salty taste, which is unacceptable in baby food.
Strawberries, citrus fruits and other exotic fruits
Beautiful and tasty exotic fruits and fruits: kiwi, avocado, citrus fruits, pineapple, can cause severe allergic skin manifestations not only in babies, but also in older children. Strawberries, wild strawberries, raspberries also contain allergens, it is better not to give them to children, especially those who are prone to allergic reactions.
What is strictly prohibited for children to eat?
There are forbidden foods for babies in their first years of life:
Black and green tea
In industrial production of children's food, there is a list of products unacceptable for children:
Ethyl alcohol with a concentration of more than 0.2%
sweeteners (except those special for dietary and baby food)
benzoic and sorbic acids (they are used as preservatives)
hot and hot spices: pepper, mustard, horseradish
red meat, fish and poultry after refreezing
trans fats and hydrogenated oils
food additives (various E additives not allowed in Russia for the production of baby food)
Prohibited products for children with various diseases
Childhood diseases are a test not only for the child's body, but also for parents. Only by the joint efforts of a doctor and loving moms and dads can the child’s recovery be accelerated, and these are: drug treatment, proper regimen and hygiene, good nutrition, excluding certain foods from the diet for various diseases.
What should not be eaten in children with lactose?
Lactase deficiency is associated with the absence or insufficient amount of an enzyme that can break down milk sugar - lactose, which enters the body with dairy products.
In this disease, children experience disorders of the gastrointestinal tract: diarrhea or constipation, weight loss, fetid frothy stools, regurgitation, vomiting, colic, bloating.
If lactose intolerance is suspected, babies are placed on a lactose-free or low-lactose diet. After the diagnosis and treatment of the disease that caused lactase deficiency, the child undergoes control tests. With positive dynamics, the doctor may give permission for the gradual introduction of fermented milk products into the diet.
IMPORTANT: Lactose is not only found in milk and dairy products, it is used in the production of medicines, margarine, candy, bread, ham and sausages. Before buying certain products, you should carefully read their composition on the label.
What should not be eaten by children with angina?
Angina is a disease caused by viruses and bacteria. It is characterized by severe sore throat and high fever. During illness, the child's appetite is usually absent and this worries parents very much.
During an acute illness, do not force-feed your baby. Lack of appetite is a protective reaction of the body to the disease. After a few days, the child will begin to recover and the desire to eat will appear again.
Children with angina should not be given solid food. Food should be well ground, preferably to a puree state. Sour drinks, hot and cold dishes are contraindicated for an inflamed throat. Food should be warm and good tasting.
What should children not eat if they have allergies?
Allergic manifestations in children are caused by many reasons: food intolerance, drug intolerance, allergy to dust, animal dander, plant pollen, etc. During allergic manifestations, it is very important to adhere to the right diet and completely eliminate the products that provoke the appearance of allergies.
bakery and pasta products containing gluten
red berries: strawberries, wild strawberries, raspberries
seafood and some types of fish
Chickenpox is an infectious viral disease that affects almost all children attending preschool or school institutions. The acute period of the disease is associated with a rise in temperature, headache, itchy skin rashes in the form of fluid-filled vesicles.
To help your child cope with the disease and move to the recovery stage faster, you need to follow the right diet, consisting of healthy and complete foods. During illness, food should be excluded that is difficult for the child's body to digest and can cause a number of complications from the gastrointestinal tract.
It is not recommended to feed a sick child with fatty, spicy, salty, sour and fried foods. Food should be balanced, light, soft, warm. Too hot and cold food is contraindicated for the child.
Foods to avoid during chicken pox:
Dysbacteriosis is a disease associated with disturbances in the normal intestinal microflora of the body. An imbalance between “beneficial bacteria” and pathogenic bacteria causes improper bowel function.
The child is concerned about:
intestinal motility disorder (constipation or diarrhea)
Apathy and lethargy
Lack of appetite
causes of dysbiosis in children are different:
consequences of antibiotic therapy
Vitamin deficiency000 with dysbacteriosis and the exclusion of unacceptable products contribute to the rapid recovery of the baby.
Foods to avoid in dysbacteriosis:
sour berries and fruits (cherries, sour apples, cranberries, pomegranates, tangerines)
raw vegetables and fruits
products that cause fermentation in the intestines (grapes, cabbage, legumes, carbonated drinks)
fast food dishes
What should not be eaten when a child has colic?
Colic often accompanies the little man in the first months of life. The baby is born with a sterile intestine and an immature gastrointestinal tract. In the body of a child, there are still not enough enzymes that can fully break down food. That is why a nursing mother should pay great attention to her nutrition.
Products that should not be included in the diet of a nursing mother
store vegetable and fruit juices
To prevent colic baby, the diet of a nursing mother should consist of steamed, boiled or baked foods. Preference should be given to vegetables and fruits with a green color. With further maturation of the child and the disappearance of colic, the choice of food products can be expanded, based on the recommendations of the doctor.
What should not be eaten if a child has diarrhea?
Diarrhea in a child can be caused by various reasons. These include poisoning, viral and infectious diseases, teething, gastrointestinal diseases, etc. But whatever the appearance of a digestive tract disorder is associated with, the key to a successful recovery of the body is properly prescribed nutrition for the disease
breastfeeding should not stop breastfeeding. Pediatricians recommend increasing the number of feedings, but reducing the dose of milk to avoid overfeeding and reduce the load on the baby's gastrointestinal tract
Formula-fed babies should be fed in the same way. That is, reduce the dose of formula for one feeding, but increase the frequency of feedings. In this case, it is recommended to use adapted fermented milk and low-lactate mixtures
For older children who have switched to "adult food", a special diet should also be developed by a doctor. At the same time, food must be prepared according to certain rules.
Food products that are difficult to digest and cause fermentation processes in the intestines should be discarded. Food is recommended to boil, bake, steam. Food products should be crushed with a blender or rubbed through a sieve. You can not eat fatty foods. Kashi (rice, oatmeal, buckwheat) should be boiled in water without adding milk.
Products prohibited by children
Fresh vegetables, fruits and berries
Concentrated meat broth
What can not be eaten under the rotary unit for children?
Rotavirus infection is called "intestinal flu". The disease is transmitted by viruses through food, especially dairy products. Babies between 6 months and 2 years of age are most commonly affected by the virus.
Intoxication of the child's body leads to fever, intestinal colic, liquid diarrhea, dehydration.
IMPORTANT: Young children become dehydrated very quickly. With intestinal flu, a loss of 10% of fluid can seriously affect the health of the baby, and in some cases even lead to death.
If the child is sick with rotavirus infection and refuses to eat, do not insist and force-feed the baby. But you need to drink the child often in small portions of water every half hour. This is an important and strict requirement that must be met in order to avoid fluid loss.
For intestinal flu in children, follow the recommendations:
In the acute period of infection, accompanied by high fever and vomiting, it is better not to feed the child, but to give him saline rehydration solutions and drinking water
water between feedings
Formula-fed babies should switch to lactose-free formulas during the period of illness, in consultation with the pediatrician.
Eliminate from the diet foods that irritate the intestines: fried, salty, canned foods, foods containing coarse fiber
Feed the child often in small portions cook boiled dairy-free cereals, weak meat and vegetable broths, give mashed fruits and vegetables, fermented milk products
IMPORTANT: Until the stool normalizes, the following should be excluded from the child's diet: whole milk, juices, fresh fruits and vegetables
What can not be eaten with stomatitis in children?
Stomatitis is a disease associated with inflammation of the oral mucosa. The disease causes the child suffering in the form of pain, high fever, inability to eat due to sores in the oral cavity. It is extremely difficult to feed a child with such a disease. This circumstance worries parents a lot.
Nutrition recommendations for a child with stomatitis
Do not feed your child with spicy, sour and salty foods that can irritate the oral mucosa
The temperature of food should be warm, comfortable for consumption. Hot and cold foods are not suitable for feeding a child
Cocoa, chocolate are excluded from the menu, sweet foods are limited as much as possible
Solid texture of food is not suitable for eating. Food should be in the form of purees, soups, liquid cereals
It is not recommended to eat dry bread and coarse-ground bakery products
Tomatoes, sour berries and fruits, citrus fruits are excluded from the diet.
Garlic, onion, radish, spices that irritate the oral mucosa are not allowed in the diet.
What not to eat when a child has a temperature. Lack of appetite and unwillingness to eat in the early days of illness is normal. You can not force the child to eat at this time.
At high temperatures, it is preferable for children to drink plenty of water in the form of sweetened teas, fruit drinks, compotes with dried fruits, jelly. Such drinks are rich in vitamins, which a sick child really needs.
IMPORTANT: At a high temperature, all dairy products should be excluded from the child's diet: whole milk, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, cheese. It is not recommended to use cereals cooked in milk.
Milk protein (casein) is practically indigestible at high temperatures. Products containing milk in the baby's stomach churn into a rubbery mass. When the temperature drops, there is a high risk of acetonemic syndrome, which manifests itself in the form of vomiting.
What not to eat after mantoux for a child
The Mantoux test is performed to diagnose tuberculosis in children. The examination is carried out by intradermal injection of tuberculin, which is a collection of filtrates of mycobacteria that died during heating.
Tuberculin is a strong allergen that can cause an allergic reaction in allergic children.
IMPORTANT: In order not to distort the child's true reaction to the Mantoux test, foods that can cause an allergic reaction should be excluded from his diet.
Allergen products that are not allowed before and after the Mantoux test:
seafood (shrimps, lobsters, crayfish, oysters)
red caviareggs and broth
citrus and exotic fruits (pineapples, persimmons, mangoes)
fruits and berries with a predominance of red and bright orange pigment (strawberries, raspberries, red apples, apricots)
industrial food products with food additives (chips, crackers)
What should not be eaten by a child with constipation?
Due to the imperfection of the child's gastrointestinal tract, malnutrition, insufficient water intake and many other factors, children may develop constipation from time to time.
Thick and hard stools with pain, difficulty in defecation - all these signs of poor intestinal motility cause great suffering to babies.
Main page / Nutrition / 0.5-3 year old child
- An infant between the ages of 6 months and a year must begin to receive complementary foods in addition to breast milk in order to cover the need for energy and all nutrients.
- Gradually, as the child grows, you can switch to regular food (prepared from raw materials, without the addition of salt and sugar).
- Babies over one year of age can continue to receive breast milk in addition to complementary foods or regular food, but by 2 years of age, the child should mostly switch to regular food. In addition to the protective properties of breast milk, depending on the mother's diet, the milk tastes slightly different each time, which further helps the baby to accept different tastes when forming eating habits.
- When choosing complementary foods and regular meals, it is important to ensure that there is a variety of meals on offer. Both when breastfeeding, and when switching to complementary foods and regular food, babies can experience colic or allergies. Therefore (including during breastfeeding) those foods should be avoided or used with caution, in relation to which the mother herself or the father of the child was sensitive in childhood or remains sensitive in adulthood.
- For children over 2 years of age, the recommendations for nutrition and food selection are similar to adults, but in absolute terms, the recommended amounts are smaller.
- Remember not to teach your child to drink juice, let alone sugary drinks.
MealsThe baby's belly is small, so they need to eat more often and in smaller portions. At the same time, in terms of dental health, you should not eat more than 5 times a day. That is, 3 main meals and 1-2 small snacks are ideal.
- Breakfast is the most important meal of the day - it provides the body with energy so that the child can play and learn new skills.
- If the child is already on a normal diet, porridge is the best choice for breakfast. Make it with a variety of grains, mixed grains, or whole grains. Porridge can be cooked with milk, water or a mixture of both (for children under the age of one who do not receive breast milk, with a subsequent milk formula). Milk mixtures cannot be boiled, so they are always added to food at the end of cooking. Do not add salt and sugar. Instead, flavor your porridge with a variety of fruits and vegetables (e.g. banana, peach, carrot).
- Egg dishes work well, but try to add vegetables to them too.
- For a young child, the best drink is milk (breast milk, formula milk) or water.
- You can give your child a few glasses of juice a week, but it's best to have it as a snack to make breakfast more energizing. Always prefer whole fruits to juices.
- On Sunday mornings, you can offer pancakes, for example. We repeat, cook them without adding salt and sugar, but add either immediately to the dough, or then berries-fruits.
- If the child attends kindergarten, weekday breakfasts should be adapted according to whether the child eats breakfast in the garden and what time he eats it. Breakfast does not need to be eaten immediately after waking up, but it is useful to have breakfast within an hour.
- Snacking is important on infants and young children's menus because a young child can only eat a small amount of food at a time. Snacking gives him energy and various important nutrients needed for development and growth.
- Snacks should be as unprocessed as possible (eg, fresh or dry fruits and berries, vegetables, bread, juice, oatmeal, sandwiches, unflavored yogurt, also cottage cheese for children older than one year).
- Candy, crackers, cookies, soft drinks, juice drinks, ice cream, etc., are not good snacks. Even one candy or cookie between meals can spoil a child's appetite for the whole day.
- Do not give your child food as a prize or consolation, or if the child is bored.
Lunch and dinner
- Lunch and dinner can be heavy , especially lunch. Soups and a slice of bread with soup go very well, as well as a dessert using a minimum amount of sugar, or even a small second.
- The smaller the child, the more you need to use stewing-cooking in cooking his food. Perfect for a variety of casseroles. Since children want to see what ingredients food is made of, teaching a child to eat mixed dishes from infancy can hide vegetables in them that children do not really like.
- For dinner, a hearty salad of vegetables is suitable, in which you can add an egg, cheese, fish, meat, homemade cheese or something else. If the child eats properly in the garden, the food offered at home should not be very energy intensive. Dinner can be a specific time that the family spends together where they can talk about the events of the day and be together. Here you can discuss the menu for the next day, as well as prepare for the weekend.
- A child should be taught to eat right and healthy from an early age. Habits formed in childhood often influence the choices we make later in life. Some children are quite selective in terms of what he eats and what not; It is important that you, as a parent, be an example to your child and encourage and support healthy eating habits.
- Breast milk tastes sweet, so most babies have a natural craving for anything sweet. At the same time, a child who received breast milk is more even about new tastes, because through breast milk he felt different tastes and it is easier to offer him new dishes.
- Sometimes a child may refuse certain foods, it may take up to 15 attempts before the child gets used to a new food. Be consistent in your decisions, feed your child with all the products necessary for his development, do not give up even when the child refuses for the first time or the first time. If the child actually completely refuses to eat something, change this product to something similar. The most important thing is not to give up. If you are breastfeeding your baby often enough at the same time, there is no need to worry about the baby, even if it takes several months to introduce new foods along with breast milk.
- Young children in their food preferences are guided by two main factors - whether they are familiar with food and the taste of food (sweetness). For children under 4 years old, the most important thing is that the child knows what kind of food it is. Therefore, new products must be introduced carefully and in small quantities, leading by example. Getting used to new foods takes time. If you do it carefully and in a playful way, the children will be very interested. The more natural flowers will be presented on the plate, the more beautiful and appetizing the dish will be, the more it will contain various essential nutrients.
- When eating, the child's mood and environment (eg, whether the TV is playing or there are guests) are important, as well as whether the child is hungry.
- For eating, it is imperative to set aside time to enjoy food. When eating together with the family, the child will eat faster, the example of parents is important from early childhood. Enjoy each other's company while eating.
- Appearance and correct food temperature are important for a child. The child will eat with great appetite if he sees what ingredients the food was prepared from. Try different foods and cook them in different ways to ensure food variety and availability of different nutrients.
- Teach your child to choose foods from different food groups so that he understands the diversity of food. Give your child the opportunity to choose their own food from suitable foods: this or that fruit, various grains, various vegetables, etc. Teach children to eat plenty of vegetables from an early age. To quench your thirst, offer water, not juice.
- A child should never be scared about food. Food is not a means of punishment or reward. Do not force the child to eat, rather attract. If you force a child to eat, it greatly affects the psyche and behavior of the child and can leave a negative imprint on his entire subsequent life.
The most important child nutrition keywords:
- communal meal
- availability of suitable food
- explanatory work
- choice and decision making
- When a baby is born (recommended already during the mother's pregnancy), it is the last time to review the eating habits of the whole family.
- An example is one of the factors that will begin to shape the nutrition of a young child.
- A child's eating habits are also shaped by what choice of food is available to the family (including the child), how meals are organized at home, etc. First of all, they will begin to influence a child over a year old.
- Many children aged 2-3 years are already in nursery or kindergarten, and often spend time at home only in the evenings or on weekends. These meals should form a conscious choice. Children can discuss with children and direct their nutritional wishes.
There are many ways to offer fruits and vegetables to your child:
- The child likes to eat with fingers, sticks, matches. Why ban it?
- As a snack before dinner, after coming home from kindergarten or while watching TV, offer your child instead of chips carrot slices, apple slices, etc.
- On the birthday table, children love sliced carrots, paprika, cucumbers and cauliflower slices with dipping sauce. Why not offer fruit on a skewer (melon, pear, watermelon, grapes).
- If you're in a hurry and don't have time to eat, keep a fruit handy that you can give your child a snack.
- For children, the size of fruit or vegetable pieces and how they are processed may be important. A child may prefer a whole carrot over a grated carrot salad or a stewed carrot dish.
- Young children do not like to chew on large and hard carrots, but they will eat carrots cut into slices with pleasure. It is especially difficult for children to cope with carrots with a hard core.
- If the child does not eat fresh fruits and vegetables at all, then cut them into molds (a month, a heart), maybe you will like it? Why not do it with the kids?
- The child can happily eat a small round sandwich with a face made of vegetable pieces.
- If you are making a salad for children, consider their wishes. As a rule, children like to eat different foods separately.
- A child who does not eat boiled rutabagas or carrots happily eats them raw. A child who does not want to eat raw carrots will gladly eat them boiled in vegetable stew.
There are many different uses for fruits and vegetables.
Fruits and vegetables do not have to be eaten only fresh or boiled, they can be discreetly added to various dishes:
- soups, stews, casseroles, wok
- pasta, sauces, cereals, meatballs
- herbs (e.g. dill, parsley) for seasoning dishes
- in pies, cakes, pizzas
- fresh berry sauces for desserts, fruits in jelly and jelly
- in smoothies, milk and juice drinks
Get your child used to a variety of simple salads, such as carrot or kale salad. But to get the child used to different tastes, try other salads, for example, a salad of sauerkraut, pumpkin, onions (bulb and green).
Children grow in periods, which means that there may be times when the child eats too little, and there are periods when he eats more.
- It is useful to ensure that food intake and energy expenditure are balanced.
- If the child is very active, he should eat more.
- If the child seems to be eating too little or too much, keep a food diary - for about a week, write down everything that and how much the child ate and drank.
- If the child has a bowel movement every day, then the amount of food for the child is sufficient, there is no need to worry. Often it turns out that the problem is not in the amount eaten, but in the choice of food. After all, you can get as much energy from a couple of candy cookies as from a good portion of soup. Therefore, it is unreasonable to immediately grab a jar of vitamins and minerals, first of all, nutrition should be reconsidered - sufficient, balanced and varied nutrition will provide the necessary substances. The only exception is vitamin D, which all children should receive as a dietary supplement.
- As long as a varied and balanced diet is available to a child, he grows and develops according to his age, there is no cause for concern. If parents still feel that the child may not be getting all the necessary nutrients in sufficient quantities, from time to time blood tests can be done by a doctor to check the health.
- Ideally, it would be better not to give sweets (candy, chocolate, cookies, soft drinks, etc.) to children under 3 years of age.
- Candy or biscuits should never be given to a child as a consolation, reward, or dispersal of boredom - on a subconscious level, this may affect his eating habits in the future. This recommendation is quite difficult to follow if the family has older children, but in this case, avoid bringing home sweets (sweets, cookies) and keep them on the table. Instead, put peeled-cut fruits and vegetables on the table.
- To satisfy the desire to eat something sweet, nuts and dried fruits and berries are suitable, but one should not be too zealous with them either. Babies and young children can only be given nuts in a ground or highly ground form, and make sure that children do not have an allergic reaction to them. Clean water should always be available to quench thirst. You can drink up to two glasses of juice per week. If necessary, dilute the juice yourself, do not buy nectars, juice drinks and syrups in the store, not to mention soft drinks. While vitamin-fortified water is thought to help you get enough vitamins, one 750 ml bottle actually contains about 40 grams of sugar, which is about the daily dose of sweets for an adult. A varied, balanced, and regular diet (including cereals, fruits and vegetables, and other food groups) ensures adequate intake of vitamins, minerals, and macronutrients, as well as energy, and reduces the desire to eat something sweet.
- The risk of being overweight in adulthood is higher in infants who received formula and complementary foods instead of breast milk in infancy.
- It is very likely that an obese child will grow into an obese adult. Fortunately, serious obesity among children aged 0-3 years is very rare and is primarily associated with more serious diseases. At the same time, it is absolutely possible to feed a 2-3-year-old child if he is indiscriminately offered sweets, chocolate, cookies, pastries, soft drinks, etc.
- To check whether the child is growing and gaining weight normally, you can look at the growth and weight curve of infants and children, and in case of underweight or overweight, it is imperative to consult a family doctor or pediatrician for further instructions. You can not limit the nutrition of the child, guided by their own ideas.
Many young children go to nursery from about 1.5 years old. This means that often on weekdays the child eats out three times - breakfast and lunch, as well as dinner. According to how much time the child spends in kindergarten, how many times and what he eats, it is necessary to form the child's home meals. The body needs to be regularly provided with the necessary amount of energy, so it is important to stick to daily meals. Keep up to date with the weekly menu in kindergarten, make different options for homemade dinners or weekend lunches. The more different tastes and dishes you introduce your child to from an early age, the easier it will be for him to get used to food in kindergarten.
In Estonia, food regulations have been developed in pre-school child care institutions, which are regulated by an order of the Minister of Social Affairs.
It is not so easy for children under one year old, even under 2 years old, to find the right food if you are not eating at home. Meals offered to children often include too much salt or sugar. Children's meals may appeal to children (often due to their high fat, sugar and/or salt content), but their nutritional value is often very low. Instead of children's meals, it is better to choose a regular dish or soup and ask for it to be prepared with as little salt as possible. The food offered in fast food places is generally not suitable for children under 3 years old (and in fact, adults).
- When a child turns one year old, the dishes offered on the occasion of his birthday are intended primarily for visiting adults and other children.
- Depending on the age of the children, their age recommendations can be used.
- Food offered to the birthday person must be prepared without salt and sugar. Sweets, soft drinks, potato chips and other products that are very popular at children's birthdays are best removed from the festive table of a child who is one year old, and even 2 and 3 years old.
- Dishes on the festive table of a 2-3-year-old child should have a mild taste with minimal or no added salt and sugar.
- Child-friendly chopped vegetables such as carrots, paprika, cucumber and cauliflower pieces with unflavored yogurt dipping sauce.
- You can offer fruit on a skewer (melon, pear, watermelon, grapes).
- If desired, you can prepare more dense dishes (salads, homemade pizza, etc.), but they must be prepared from minimally processed raw materials.
- If you offer baked goods, try to find low sugar options (raw sugar, agave syrup, etc. are not good alternatives).
- Always read the label on food packaging! This will help you make a more informed choice.
- The allowable amount of supplements for children is usually less than for adults (the maximum amount is based on the body weight of an adult). Therefore, be careful with colored sweets, drinks, cookies with a long shelf life, desserts and sausages, products containing synthetic sweeteners.
- If the child is old enough to participate in the grocery shopping, let the child choose between suitable foods: one or another fruit, various cereal products, various vegetables, etc.
- Avoid the shelves with sweets, biscuits, soft drinks, etc., so that the child does not have a desire to buy sweets. Ideally, it would be to introduce the child to sweets, etc. in small quantities and rarely, and also as late as possible, and exactly after the third year of life. Unfortunately, this recommendation is difficult to follow if there are older children in the family.
- What to do if the child in the store constantly whines and cries to get what he wants? Read practical tips here.
- Children under 3 years of age should not and should not be given gadgets, especially with meals.
- The child should not be taught to watch TV while eating, as this takes attention away from the meal and in turn creates poor eating habits in the child. While eating, all attention should be paid to the process of eating.
- Children under 3 are usually very active and need extra energy.
- The principle of a healthy lifestyle is that the amount of energy received from food and the amount of energy expended are in balance.
- All children should be as active as possible from an early age - climbing, crawling, walking, jumping, chasing a ball, playing in the yard. Parents themselves should orient their children to the movement, be an example to them.
- Mobility habits formed in childhood are the basis for adult mobility habits.