Ark hand feeding baby
Breeding - ARK: Survival Evolved Wiki
A Raptor and his offspring
Breeding is a feature of ARK: Survival Evolved that allows players to breed improved creatures through Eggs with non-mammals and gestation with mammals. Eggs do not have an owner, so it's possible to steal eggs laid by other survivors' creatures.
Newborn creatures are simply claimed (imprinted on) and do not require the usual taming processes associated with wild creatures. Anyone can claim a newborn. This must be done promptly, along with feeding it, as babies can die quickly from hunger.
- 1 Breeding Mechanics
- 1.1 Preparing Mating
- 1. 1.1 Mating Requirements
- 1.1.2 Mating Range While Wandering
- 1.2 Mating
- 1.2.1 Special Conditions of Mating
- 1.2.2 Mating Wait Interval
- 1.3 Incubation
- 1.3.1 Managing Temperature
- 188.8.131.52 Glued Eggs
- 1.3.1 Managing Temperature
- 1.4 Gestating
- 1.5 Claiming
- 1.6 Caring For Babies
- 1.6.1 Caring for Baby Carnivores
- 1.6.2 Caring for Babies from Egg-only Tames
- 1.6.3 Special Caring
- 184.108.40.206 Reaper King
- 220.127.116.11 Royal Griffin
- 18.104.22.168 Beelzebufo
- 1.6.4 Food Values
- 1.7 Maturation Phases & Food Consumption
- 1.7.1 Notes
- 1.8 Imprinting
- 1.9 Sterile Creatures
- 1.1 Preparing Mating
- 2 Times for Breeding
- 3 Stats of the Offspring
- 3.1 Example
- 3.2 Amount of higher stats and chance of obtaining them when hatching
- 3.3 Finding the Best Parents
- 3.3.1 Wild Stats Level-up
- 3. 4 Level of the Offspring
- 3.4.1 Example
- 4 Notes/Trivia
- 5 External Video Tutorials
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The first step of breeding is having two opposite sex creatures of the same species for mating. Original, Tek, Aberrant, X, and R variants of creatures count as separate species, and as such, cannot be cross-bred. They must be bred with their own variant. Most creatures can be bred; those few that cannot are listed at the bottom of this article. See Sterile Creatures for more information.
Always be prepared for having more than one baby to be born upon incubation/gestation completion. There is a 10% chance of twins, and a 2% chance of triplets.
It has been confirmed that there is no creature in the game capable of affecting chances of mutations, twins and triplets.
For creatures to successfully mate, they must be:
- of same species
- of opposite sex (one male and one female)
- within mating range of each other
- wandering or set to mate (Enable Wandering or Enable Mating must be enabled on both creatures)
- not following anything (Disable Following on both creatures)
- unburdened (the creatures must not be carrying so much weight they are unable to move)
- not mounted
- not spayed/neutered
- not having a mating cooldown (once mated females have a mating cooldown interval before they can mate again, the cooldown can also be triggered when transferring the creature between Arks)
Mating Range While Wandering
If using the Enable Wandering method to allow for mating, then steps need to be taken to maintain the mating range, which varies between species and is loosely based on the size of the adult creature. If the mating pair wander outside the mating range, then mating is stopped and mating progress is reset.
Building a pen of a suitably small size to keep the wandering creatures within mating range of each other is one common approach.
You can also use the "Whistle Stop (All)" command (U on PC). This halts all creatures within the area to stop moving, even ones that are enabled to wander. It's best to use the whistle every time the creature starts to move again, or to prevent the creatures from ever moving, whistle constantly. While this method doesn't need a pen, it does need you or a tribe member to stay there and constantly whistle. This may be more helpful if one survivor is constantly whistling not to move, and another survivor enables the creatures nearby to wander. In this way, you can achieve mass breeding in an area without ever building a pen, or moving creatures.
To initiate breeding of a pair by yourself, whistle both creatures to follow you, then enable wandering. Then, disable following on both. This prevents them from walking around in the meantime.
It is possible to use the Dino Leash , to restrict the range for mating. Then no mating pen is needed.
If you do not want to build a pen, whistle or use a leash; then you can simply use enable mating instead, this will make the creatures stand still and then they will start to mate.
When the above conditions are all met, a small red heart icon appears over the heads of the mating creatures, and a mating bar appears on the female's HUD (look at the female to reveal the HUD). The HUD also indicates which creature they are mating with. Ensure the mating animals remain close together, as otherwise the mating stops. Due to server lag and game mechanics, the mating bar does not continuously update in real time. Additionally, mating multiple females to a single male at the same time can make this worse. Patience is advised as the bar moves in leaps and bounds.
Once the mating bar is completed, non-mammalian females drop a single fertilized egg , and mammalian females start gestating.
If there are too many tamed creatures in the server or in the tribe, the pair will refuse to mate until there is a free spot.
Special Conditions of Mating
Some of the creatures will only mate when certain conditions are given.
- Royal Griffin - will only mate with the other gender with similar surname.
- Ferox - will only mate when the female is at least 95%+ addiction as a small creature.
- Magmasaur - will only mate when the female is submerged in the lava surface in Volcano Region on any map.
- Megachelon - will only mate at deep depths in the ocean.
- Beelzebufo - will only mate in water.
- Diplocaulus - will only mate in water.
Mating Wait Interval
Females cannot mate again until a mating wait interval has passed (Cryofreezing them will still continue the mating interval cooldown). This interval is indicated on their HUD.
The mating interval starts after the creature has laid the egg or gestation has completed. The mating interval is also started for female creatures that are transferred between servers. Males can mate at any time.
- Main article: Incubation
The fertilized egg itself only begins Incubation when dropped onto the floor/ground or placed correctly in an Egg Incubator (Genesis: Part 2). When incubating, a Fertilized Egg must be kept at a certain temperature range depending on the species (this also factors in insulation). If outside of this temperature range, incubation won't make progress, and it loses "Fertilized Egg Health" over time and is destroyed if this reaches zero. This is all indicated on the HUD when looking at a Fertilized Egg, along with its parents.
You can always "pause" the incubation by picking up the egg and putting it in a Refrigerator, Preserving Bin or other Inventory.
The following eggs are an exception due to the nature of how it is obtained (no health loss in inadequate temperature area):
- Crystal Wyvern Egg
- Deinonychus Egg
- Magmasaur Egg
- Rock Drake Egg
- Wyvern Egg
If there are too many tamed creatures in the server or in the tribe, the egg will continue to incubate with no timer information, but letting it hatch will not yield a baby.
The best method to ensure eggs are at an appropriate temperature for incubation is through insulation. Use one or more Air Conditioner, Dimetrodon, Kairuku or Otter. Six Air Conditioner should work for all eggs but eight is ideal for when there is a heat/cold storm. You might need up to 14 or more Air Conditioners for larger eggs such as the Giganotosaurus, or the Wyvern in Scorched Earth or Ragnarok. The Rock Drake in Aberration requires at least 15 Air Conditioners due to its very cold incubation requirement. Whereas the Deinonychus from Valguero needs a rough 23 Air Conditioners in the snow because of its extreme heat required.
With the release of Genesis: Part 2, the introduction of the Egg Incubator (Genesis: Part 2) allows for yet another way to incubate eggs.
Another way is to tame a handful of Dimetrodon. These seemingly useless finned creatures are actually one of the best sources of insulation in the entire game. The higher their melee damage, the higher their insulation bonus is; at ~1000 melee damage, it can even raise Wyvern eggs. The insulation effect stacks with other Dimetrodons, so if one isn't enough to do the job, try two, or three, or more. Far cheaper to maintain than the expensive air conditioners, these guys are mobile and only need meat, compared to the stationary air conditioner that also needs electricity to run. However, everything has its drawbacks: the Dimetrodon is slow and hard to transport on foot; they are hard to tame due to where they spawn and their fast torpor drop. However, it is worth the risk, especially on Aberration, where Rock Drake Egg would normally require many air conditioners.
At the beginning of the game, when the Air Conditioner or Dimetrodon are not yet available, use a heat source to regulate the egg's temperature. Standing Torch, Torch, Campfire, Industrial Cooker, and stone fireplace work well. However, they all have the downside of providing negative Heat Tolerance, making careful management necessary, or going to colder areas to make the gap between cold resistance and heat resistance bigger. You may need four or more torches, depending on the biome and the egg.
Since temperature gradients can be very extreme between regions, easily reaching 20 °C or more, you can try and find a nearby biome where the temperature is closer to the eggs' ideal point; this is usually in the biome that spawned the creature. Early in the game, it is easier to find a biome that is too cold (e.g. near the coast) and heat the egg with torches, rather than trying to cool down a hot biome.
As Fertilized Eggs don't lose Egg Health in an inventory, and spoil incredibly slowly, you can keep them in your Inventory or in a preserving bin/refrigerator until able to achieve the appropriate temperature needed for Incubating. This can be very useful if you settled in a region with extreme temperatures as it's especially difficult to cool an egg in a hot biome without an air conditioner when it gets too hot.
While most creature's egg can be moved to its suitable location if the required temperature for incubation is not suited at its current location, some of the eggs cannot be moved once laid due to its glued nature. As such, females of the following eggs must lay their eggs at locations that allows incubation without causing complications:
- Araneo Egg
- Arthropluera Egg
- Bloodstalker Egg
- Mantis Egg
- Moth Egg
- Pulmonoscorpius Egg
During gestation, females can consume up to twice the amount of food they would normally. Ensure the expectant mother has access to plenty of food during gestation to avoid losing the baby.
The baby will need immediate attention to survive, so be sure to be there at the time the gestation ends.
Trying to put a gestating mother into a cryopod will terminate the pregnancy.
Babies are hatched/born unclaimed, so a survivor must "claim" them immediately after birth by getting close to them, looking right at them, and pressing the "use" key (E, , ) to imprint them, otherwise they can be claimed by other survivors. The only exception is the Reaper King, which can only be claimed by the survivor who "gave birth" to it; no other survivor including the birthgiver's tribe mates can claim it.
Warning: Pets set on aggressive attack unclaimed creatures as soon as they are hatched/born. Whistle "Passive" or claim babies quickly to avoid this. Also Tek Shields will 'shunt' unclaimed babies out of their radius.
- As of 264.5, Auto Turrets and Plant Species X set to "Players and Tamed Creatures" will NOT attack unclaimed creatures after they are hatched/born. You can safely place turrets inside a hatching pen without fearing for babies' lives.
If babies are not very promptly claimed and then fed they can quickly die from hunger.
You can control the hatch timing of fertilized eggs using a Preserving Bin or Refrigerator. This is not an option for live birth creatures, so make sure to time the mating and gestation appropriately.
Caring For Babies
Young animals take significant time and intensive care, especially during the "Baby" stage; if you're busy, don't breed your creatures right away. Alternately, you can just put the newborn baby into a cryopod for later. Most creatures will require the better part of a weekend to raise.
New babies follow the nearest survivor if one is within a reasonable range, so survivors will probably want to disable these settings. New babies have extremely low health, carrying capacity and food, so survivors need to carefully feed and take care of them in their first moments of life, or they'll soon die. The creature must be fed by adding food to their inventory. Once they reach Juvenile phase of their maturation (10.1%) they can eat from a Feeding Trough or Tek Trough to ensure the creature has a sufficient food supply. The maturation progress and phase is shown when looking at the creature.
Babies dynamically gain more HP, food capacity, and carrying capacity as they mature over time. They need lots of food because the babies eat very quickly, so stock up beforehand while the mother is pregnant/the egg is incubating.
Babies are not mountable and flee from fights. Mounts that can carry creatures (e. g. the Argentavis) can carry babies, which allows you to quickly reposition the little ones if needed.
The Procoptodon and the Maewing are two creatures that can help with raising babies.
It takes a long time for babies to mature; breeding should only be attempted if you or your tribe have the time. As the baby grows, you will be able to leave the baby alone for longer and longer periods of time. One good use of a survivor's time at this stage might be crafting kibble for imprinting. If you will be imprinting, the baby might request any of 6 different kibbles (on PC and Console) or 15 different kibbles (on Mobile), so make sure you have them on hand.
Caring for Baby Carnivores
Baby carnivores are especially difficult to raise as it takes a minimum of 48 real hours to mature them, and a stack of meat spoils every 26.6 real hours (40 x 40 mins) in the feeding trough. Therefore their feeding trough must be topped up every 26 hours to continue their development. Failure to do so could result in starvation to death. By using Fish Meat, this time is doubled to 53.3 hours (40 x 80 mins), although Raw Fish Meat is only half as nutritious as Raw Meat, so babies will need twice as much meat. Creatures* will eat food with the lowest food value first (see food table below), thus fish meat before raw meat, so mixing the two will result in the longer keeping fish meat being eaten first. After progression to Juvenile phase, the creatures can eat from a trough, but will starve if not fed.
This is less of an issue for herbivores, because a stack of 100 berries lasts 66 real hours (2.7 days) before spoiling, a much more manageable interval. Remember not to try and feed the babies with stim or narcoberries because they won't eat them.
*Few creatures, like Baryonyx and Pelagornis will eat Raw Fish Meat before Cooked Fish Meat and they only eat fish meat. Similarly, their offspring will only eat raw fish meat until reaching adulthood.
The use of a powered Tek Trough that can store more items and acts like a refrigerator extending the spoil time is recommended.
Caring for Babies from Egg-only Tames
|This section is about content exclusive to the DLC: Scorched Earth, Aberration, Genesis: Part 1, Crystal Isles|
Babies hatched from Egg-only taming (with the exception of Deinonychus) only take a specific food until they fully mature. While their food drops down slower than other babies, feeding them with their usual food will not replenish their food.
- Wyvern = Only takes in Wyvern Milk which can be obtained by either knocking out an adult wild female Wyvern, or killing Alpha Fire Wyvern.
- Rock Drake = Only takes in Nameless Venom which can sometimes be gained by killing Nameless.
- Magmasaur = Only takes in Sulfur or Ambergris which can sometimes be harvested from the green-cracked rock formations in Lunar Biome at Genesis Simulation or in Ringed Asteroid at - Space - in Genesis Ship.
- Crystal Wyvern = Only takes in Primal Crystal which can be obtained by gathering (with "Use") from a knocked out adult wild Crystal Wyvern.
Some babies require special caring. Effects can be disastrous if not cared for properly.
|This section is about content exclusive to the DLC: Aberration|
For details on taking care of baby Reaper King or how to obtain them, check its own article. Reaper King babies will attack any dino and any survivor around if it is able to reach towards them and will be constantly on wander (with no options to stop wandering or follow target). It will not attack the birth giver with Reaper Pheromone Gland effect. Once it reaches Juvenile however, it will stop randomly attacking and can be ordered like every other baby.
Whenever the baby attacks an entity, a portion of its food will be lost.
|This section is about a feature exclusively available on Mobile|
Baby Griffins prefer to be secure to feel safe. While it feels insecure, it will refuse to eat food from inventory or trough. For it to feel secure, it must be close to its mother based on the current ancestor, or a female griffin with the same surname as the baby.
Until adulthood maturity, Beelzebufo babies must always be kept inside water. Any attempt to pull it out even as Adolescent will easily kill it.
Carnivores will only eat meat, while herbivores will only eat berries. During the baby phase, you have to hand feed the baby until it reaches the juvenile phase. This can take quite a long time so be prepared and have time to sit around feeding a baby.
|Preferred Kibble||80 (53.33*)|
|Kibble made from Prime Meat Jerky (excluding Carbonemys kibble)||90|
|Raw Prime Meat / Raw Meat / Raw Mutton||50**|
|Cooked Prime Meat / Prime Meat Jerky||50|
|Cooked Meat / Cooked Meat Jerky||25|
|Raw Prime Fish Meat / Cooked Prime Fish Meat / Raw Fish Meat||25|
|Cooked Fish Meat||12|
* Brontos only gain 53. 33 food points from their preferred Kibble (Carbonemys Egg)
** some creatures have different values for raw meat, e.g. the Bloodstalker gains only 10 for each raw meat.
*** only for Scorpions, Vultures and Mantis.
Maturation Phases & Food Consumption
Food consumption by babies is very large and varies by the maturation progress dynamically by the following formula:
FoodPerSec = R * (1 - maturationRatio) , with R = basic food drain rate
The basic food drain rate varies per creature. For example, this value for a Rex baby is around R=1.16, while the Bloodstalker has a base food drain rate of R=0.785 (further measurements needed for other creatures).
The Rock Drake has a basic food drain of R = 0.1, other special creatures like Wyvern and Magmasaur may have an equivalent food consumption (not tested yet).
Note: This formula is an estimation and may not give exact numbers (the error is around 5%). `maturationRatio` is the maturation percentage divided by 100.
Some Perspective: For only one baby Rex (remember you could have twins or triplets) on an unmodified server, it will take roughly 96 stacks of raw meat (stack size 40) to reach adult phase, so be sure to have plenty on hand before the baby is born!
Use a calculator to determine the needed food and time, e.g.
- Each creature seems to have a different food consumption rate that appears to change with each stage of the maturation progress (at least for wolves and Dodos).
Main article: Imprinting
Imprinting is a way to improve the stat-values of a bred creature. It requires one of three interactions (giving specific kibble, cuddling or walking) every 8* hours. Only a single player can imprint a newborn baby (whoever claims it first). There is no penalty for not imprinting, but no gain either. Any imprinting done is permanent. Accumulated imprinting values will not be lost if you miss an imprint.
If this player manages to care for the baby during the entire maturation, the creature's base stats before modifications will be increased by 20% and, when ridden by the imprinter, it will also gain 30% increased damage and damage resistance.
* The time between imprint and the amount of imprint gained per imprint can change if an event is happening. Keep an eye out on the HUD for when the next imprint is required.
All tameable creatures are breedable except for:
- Desert Titan
- Dung Beetle
- Forest Titan
- Giant Bee
- Giant Queen Bee
- Ice Titan
- Mega Mek
- Rare X-Sabertooth Salmon
- Rock Elemental
- Sabertooth Salmon
- Zombie Wyvern
Despite in-game showing the Reaper King as breedable, it is impossible due to how they are "tamed", with the added fact they are shown as genderless.
In ARK: Survival Evolved Mobile, Royal Griffin has gender and can be bred. However, they will only mate with members of the same house (they must have the same 2-3 last letters in their names).
Times for Breeding
Template:Table of Breeding Template:Table of Mammal Breeding
Stats of the Offspring
In-Depth look at Breeding Super Dinos
The spawn of two dinosaurs will inherit the "natural" stat levels of its parents. Natural stat levels are the levels in each stat after it has been tamed but before it gains any stats through leveling-up by a player. There is a 55% chance of inheriting the stronger stat of each parent. This means you have a certain percent chance of obtaining a 100% perfect (meaning with only the higher stats of both parents) creature from both parents from each mating.
The stat-values (not the stat-levels) of the offspring are calculated like for a creature that was just tamed with a 100% taming effectiveness with the taming effectiveness bonuses applied. This means that an offspring can have higher values than its parents in stats that get a bonus from taming effectiveness (for most creatures this is Melee Damage and sometimes Food). See also Creature stats calculation for how the values are calculated from the stats.
To understand this better, here is an example. Let's only look at the melee damage of a pair of Raptors. Assume they were just tamed with a taming effectiveness of 70% and both already have 4 levels in melee damage. The value you can see as melee damage is according to the formula on Creature stats calculation, the newly added extra modifier (balancing update), and the stats of the raptors
Value = (BaseStat × ( 1 + LevelWild × IncreaseWild) + TamingBonusAdd × TamingBonusAddModifier) × (1 + TamingEffectiveness × TamingBonusMult × TamingBonusMultModifier) Value = (100% × ( 1 + 4 × 5%) + 50% × 15%) × (1 + 70% × 40% × 45%) Value = 127.5% × 112.6% Value = 143.6%
The offspring inherits the values of its parents. They don't inherit the plain value, but the levels the parents spend in the stats before being leveled up by a player. So the offspring inherits 4 levels for its melee damage (as both parents have 4 levels in this case). To get the value of the melee damage of the offspring, we calculate it like before, but this time we use a taming effectiveness of 100% (this is the way the game gives you another bonus if you breed creatures).
Value = (BaseStat × ( 1 + LevelWild × IncreaseWild) + TamingBonusAdd × TamingBonusAddModifier) × (1 + TamingEffectiveness × TamingBonusMult × TamingBonusMultModifier) Value = (100% × ( 1 + 4 × 5%) + 50% × 15%) × (1 + 100% × 40% × 45%) Value = 127.5% × 118% Value = 150.5%
Like the parents, the offspring has 4 levels in melee damage, but with the higher taming-effectiveness-bonus its value is 150.5% instead of 143.6%. The bonus is not much, but is clearly noticeable.
Amount of higher stats and chance of obtaining them when hatching
|Number of desired stats||Probability [%]|
Finding the Best Parents
To maximize the stats of the offspring, specialized parents with a good value in few stats are needed. The more specialized a creature is in one stat, the higher it can be. To get a really good breed you need 6 creatures, each with a high upleveled (only the wild-leveling counts here) different stat. After at least 3 generations a creature with the best of the stats can be bred.
Wild Stats Level-up
Type in values of a wild creature to see on which stats it's emphasized. Green values on a high-level creature are very good for breeding. If you have already tamed your creature you can try to recover the breeding stats with an external tool.
The stat-calculator does not work in the mobile-view, see here for alternatives: Apps
Note that after the creature is tamed it gets bonuses on some stats depending on the taming effectiveness. This makes it hard to retrieve the levels on a tamed creature, so this tool is only for wild ones, but gives a first impression, how well the stats are distributed.
Level of the Offspring
The resulting level of the baby is the sum of wild level-points (i.e. level of the creature directly after taming) spent in the inherited stats by its parents. Assume for example, that one (highly unusual) parent has only leveled up in Health 40 levels and nothing else, while the other parent leveled up only in weight 30 levels. If the baby happens to inherit these higher stats, it inherits 70 levelups giving it level 71 with its starting level. Other possibilities are a level 41 Baby with only health leveled up, a level 31 baby with only weight leveled up or a baby with level 1 and nothing leveled up.
The (practically impossible to reach) maximum of levels a baby can get would be 223 levelups (149 natural + 74 by taming bonus (TE of nearly 100%)) in each stat, with 7 stats summing up to level 1562 (223 levelups in 7 stats plus the startinglevel: 223 x 7 + 1 = 1562). 223)].
Note that the levels a wild animal wastes in the movement stat is remembered and passed on during breeding. Thus two siblings with seemingly identical stats might have different levels if one of them inherited a higher movement stat than the other. This has one practical advantage: a higher torpor level.
Note that the cap level of creature on official are 450, after this level your creature will be deleted by server restart, transferring or if you cryo pod it.
Here's an example of two parents and possible children they can get. Child1 inherited random stats, ChildMax only got the maximum values and ChildMin only got the lower values. You can see that the level of the offspring can be lower, in between or higher as the levels of the parents. The higher levelup is displayed in bold.
Displayed are only the wild levels (the ones that can be inherited). Levelups by the player have no influence on the stats of the offspring.
In this example the levels of Stamina are the same for both parents, so you cannot tell which one the offspring inherited.
|Level 154 |
|Level 150 |
|Level 166 |
|Level 130 |
|Level 142 |
To get to the creature's level, you add up the levels of the stats and add one, as all creatures start at level one.
- Contrary to popular myths, the Oviraptors and Unicorns do not increase chances for twins, triplets nor mutations.
- The Titanoboa, Basilisk, Coelacanth, Piranha, Sabertooth Salmon, Karkinos, Dung Beetle, Astrocetus, Lamprey and Trilobite cannot be bred when domesticated.
- However, in the real world all reptiles, fish, crustaceans, snails, whales, and Trilobites and Dung Beetles are able to breed.
External Video Tutorials
Quick tutorial on hatching eggs
Video about breeding and mutations
- ↑ Patch notes, v220
- ↑ ComplexMinded's tweet, dated Mar 4, 2020
- ↑ Crumplecorn's Breeding Calculator
- ↑ ARK Smart Breeding
- Ark Breeding Calculator (Web Application)
Hand-Feeding Baby Birds | VCA Animal Hospital
Hand-feeding baby birds is only a substitute for parents raising birds, but it does have certain advantages. Hand-raised baby birds usually make better pets, as they have been completely socialized with humans. Hand-raised babies grow up with less fear of humans or other potential dangers such as cats, dogs and young children. Hand-feeding is a huge responsibility and requires time, patience, and commitment. Hand-fed baby birds are entirely reliant on you for everything. Hand-feeding is a job best left for the experienced bird breeder or aviculturist. If you’re considering hand-feeding a baby bird, you should contact your local bird breeder or veterinarian for help. This handout is designed to provide some basic guidelines on how to hand-feed.
When do I start hand-feeding a baby bird?
A chick may be removed from its parents any time before weaning, but many suggest leaving the babies with the parents for up to 3 weeks. Older birds may prove to be more challenging in their acceptance of hand-feeding.
Where do I keep a baby bird?
Precise temperature and humidity is essential for optimum growth of newly hatched birds. Initially, relative humidity greater than 50% is required. Hatchlings (without feathers) should be maintained at 95°-97°F (35°-36°C). As the chick gets older and develops feathers, it has a greater tolerance for temperature fluctuations.
Generally, the temperature can be lowered by one degree every 2-3 days as feathering progresses. Chicks with new feathers (pinfeathers) should be fine at 75°-85°F (24°-30°C) depending on the development of the feathers. Fully feathered and weaned chicks can be maintained at room temperature. If you are raising a chick, always monitor your bird for signs of overheating or chilling. Wings extended or drooping, and panting indicate overheating. Shivering and cuddling of chicks together indicate that they’re cold.
Poor growth or poor digestion (delayed crop emptying) may indicate poor health (including presence of gastrointestinal tract infections), improper consistency/mixing of hand feeding formula, improper temperature of formula, or improper environmental temperature and humidity. Good quality brooders are available that carefully regulate air circulation, temperature, and humidity. Paper towel, diapers, hand towels, or other soft, disposable products can be used to line the bottom of the brooder and provide secure, clean, dry footing for birds. The bottom liner must be changed frequently to keep birds clean. If the bottom texture is too smooth, chicks’ legs may splay out sideways, leading to permanent deformities. The brooder should be carefully checked to ensure that it does not contain anything for birds to get their wings or legs stuck on or that might cause injury or deformities.
What should I feed my bird?
There are numerous commercially available hand-feeding formulas for baby birds. You should choose one formula and use it until the baby is weaned. Changes in diet may be stressful on the baby's digestion. Be sure to discuss dietary choices with your veterinarian, an experienced bird breeder, or an aviculturist.
How do I feed my baby bird?
All food must be prepared fresh for every feeding. Food retained from one feeding to another is an ideal medium for the growth of harmful bacteria and yeast. Any food prepared or heated in a microwave oven must be mixed thoroughly to ensure that the food’s temperature is uniform and that there are no hot or cold spots. Food temperature should be at 102°-106°F (39°-41°C) throughout the mixture and should be measured with a thermometer. Food that is too hot may cause severe burns to the crop.
Food that is too cold may be rejected by baby birds and may slow down digestion. Hand-feeding formulas have specific directions on the packaging and explain how they should be mixed.
In general, the younger the bird, the thinner the mixture should be. A day-old chick requires a more dilute mixture (90% water), as it is still utilizing the yolk sac as a source of nutrition. Chicks older than one or two days, should have food containing approximately 70-75% liquid.
"All food must be prepared fresh for every feeding."
Syringes are probably the preferred feeding tool, but some bird owners still prefer a spoon with the sides bent up and inward. Accurate feeding volumes can be recorded with the syringe. Charting daily feedings is important. The natural feeding response of a baby bird is to rapidly bob the head in an up and down motion. This action can be stimulated with gentle finger pressure at the corners of the mouth. During this head bobbing, the trachea is closed and large amounts of food can be given relatively quickly.
If the bird is not displaying a strong feeding response, do not attempt to feed as there is an increased chance of aspiration of food into the trachea and lungs which can lead to death. The best time to feed is when the crop is empty. When full, the crop, which is the sac that hangs over the front of the chest at the base of the neck, will be visibly distended.
How often and how much do I feed?
The amount and frequency of feeding depends on the age of the bird and the formula fed. The frequency of feeding for young birds is greater than that of older birds. The following are general guidelines. With newly hatched chicks, the yolk sac is the source of nutrients for the first 12-24 hours post-hatching. Chicks less than one week old should be fed 6-10 times per day (every 2-3 hours).
During the first week of life, some birds benefit from feeding during the night. Chicks that have not yet opened their eyes may take 5-6 feedings per day (every 3-4 hours). Once birds’ eyes open, they can have 3-5 feedings (one every 5 hours). As their feathers start to grow in, they may be fed 2-3 times per day (every 6 hours). Their crops should appear full when they’re done.
Feeding between 10:00 p.m. and 6:00 a.m. is not necessary at that point when birds are sleeping. The best indication of a healthy, growing chick is a good, strong feeding response at every feeding, with the crop emptying between feedings, and the regular production of droppings (feces). Weight gain should be monitored and recorded at the same time each day using a scale that weighs in grams with 1-gram increments to detect subtle increases or decreases. Birds’ weights may fluctuate up and down daily but should trend upward over a period of days to weeks. Birds that are not gaining weight should be checked by a veterinarian as soon as possible.
When should birds be weaned off hand-feeding formula?
Deciding when to wean a bird off of formula is often a difficult decision for both the bird owner and the bird. As a bird gets older and develops a full complement of feathers, it should be encouraged to wean off formula and to eat more on its own. Some babies start weaning themselves by refusing certain feedings.
Birds should be offered a variety of foods including formulated pelleted diets as well as fresh fruits and vegetables to encourage exploration and experimentation. As food introduction continues, hand-feeding may be withheld at certain times, often starting with the mid-day feedings. As time goes on, the morning feeding may be withheld and ultimately the evening feeding. Some birds learn quicker to eat on their own by watching other birds or older babies eat.
Should I be concerned about disinfection?
Baby birds have poorly developed immune systems and are more susceptible to developing infections. The brooder should be disinfected regularly. All feeding utensils must be cleaned, disinfected, and dried thoroughly between feedings. Using separate feeding utensils for every individual bird is recommended.
How do I know if something is wrong?
If you suspect something is wrong with your bird, you should immediately contact your veterinarian. Signs to watch for include:
- Chirping or crying all the time
- Fussing a lot and not sleeping
- Listless, droopy wings or head
- Not accepting food
- Lack of feeding response
- Slow or lack of crop emptying
- Poor weight gain
- Slow growth
- Abnormal posturing or abnormal wing and/or leg positions
- Abnormal or lack of droppings
- Wetness or food on skin over the crop (indicating a possible burn)
Various breastfeeding positions
Try different breastfeeding positions to find the one that works best for you and your baby. You can see the options in our selection of photos
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There is no right or wrong way to hold the baby while
feeding, and mom and baby are sure to find their favorite position.
It is important that both you and your child feel comfortable. 1.2 It's good to learn a few different breastfeeding positions and techniques because life's circumstances often require us to be flexible, especially as your baby gets older and you start to leave the house more often.
Whatever position you choose to breastfeed your baby, remember a few simple rules.
- Prepare everything you need before feeding, including drinks, food, mobile phone, TV remote control, book or magazine. And do not forget to go to the toilet - the feeding process can take a long time!
- Make sure your baby is comfortable. Whichever position you choose, it's important to keep your baby strong, level, and provide good support for their head, neck, and spine.
- You should also be comfortable. Don't stress. If necessary, use pillows of different sizes or rolls of towels to support your back or arms.
- Make sure your baby is latching on correctly. Proper grip is the key to comfort when breastfeeding.
- If your baby does not latch on well or you experience pain while feeding, contact a lactation consultant for help. The specialist will also be able to show you how to hold your baby more comfortably.
1. Relaxed feeding or reclining position
The relaxed feeding position, also known as biological feeding, 1 is often the first position for most mothers. If, immediately after birth, the baby is placed on the mother’s chest or stomach, normally, he instinctively reaches for the breast and tries to grab the nipple. This phenomenon is known as the breast seeking reflex. Skin-to-skin contact stimulates the infant's feeding instinct, and gravity helps him to latch onto the breast and maintain balance.
But it's not just newborns that can be fed in the reclining position - this position is great for babies of all ages. It can be especially helpful if your baby does not latch well in other positions or does not like to be touched during feeding, and also if you have too much milk flow or too large breasts. Isabelle, a mother from the UK, shares her experience: “I had large breasts, and the baby was born small - 2.7 kg, so it was not easy to find a comfortable position at first. After a few weeks, it became clear that there was no “correct” posture for me. As a result, I most often fed lying down, putting the baby on my chest. ”
It is more convenient to feed not lying flat on your back, but half-sitting, leaning on pillows. So you will have a back support and you will be able to watch the baby during feeding.
2. Cradle position
This is the classic
first thought of breastfeeding. Mom sits straight
, and the baby lies on her side on her arm, pressing his stomach against her stomach. 3 Although this is a very popular position, it is not always easy to master with newborns because it gives the baby less support. Try putting a pillow under your back, and put a special breastfeeding pillow on your knees and lean on it with your hands. So you can more reliably support the child, without overstraining your back and shoulders. Just make sure that the baby does not lie too high on the pillow for feeding. The breast should remain at a natural level so that the baby can grab it without effort, otherwise sore nipples cannot be avoided.
“I breastfed in the cradle position because it suited me perfectly! It was comfortable and I loved just sitting and looking at my little one,” recalls Rachel, a mother of two from Italy.
3. Cross Cradle
This breastfeeding position looks almost the same as Cradle, but the baby is on the other arm. 3 This gives your baby support around the neck and shoulders so he can tilt his head to latch on. This position is great for breastfeeding newborns and small babies, as well as for babies who do not latch well. Since the baby lies completely on the other hand, it becomes easier to control his position and you can adjust the chest with your free hand.
Julie, a UK mother of two, finds this position very practical: “I usually breastfeed my youngest in the cross cradle position. So I have a free second hand, and I can take care of an older baby at the same time. ”
Do not hold the baby's head at first, otherwise you may inadvertently press his chin against his chest. Because of this, the child will not be able to take the breast deeply, because the nipple will rest against the base of the tongue, and not against the palate, which will lead to inflammation of the nipples. As the child grows, this position becomes more comfortable, and he can rest his head on your palm (as shown in the photo above).
4. Underarm breastfeeding
In this position, also known as the “ball grip”, the mother sits with the baby lying along her arm at the side, legs towards the back of the chair (or any other seat). 3 Another comfortable position for newborn breastfeeding, you can give your baby good support, full control of his position and a good view of his face. And the baby feels safe in close contact with the mother's body. This position is especially good for those who have had a caesarean section or a premature birth, as well as mothers of twins and women with large breasts.
“When I breastfed my first daughter, I had very large K-sized breasts—twice the size of her head,” recalls Amy, an Australian mother of two. - I put rolls of towels under each breast, because they were very heavy, and fed my daughter in a pose from under the arm, but only sitting straighter so as not to crush her. This position was also convenient because I had a caesarean section and could not put the baby on my stomach.
5. Side-lying position
The side-lying position is ideal for a relaxed
nighttime feeding in bed or on the couch. If you had a
caesarean section or ruptures during childbirth, this position may be more comfortable than sitting down. 3 In this position, mother and baby lie side by side, tummy to tummy.
“It was difficult for me to sit during endless night feedings, firstly because of the caesarean section, and secondly because of lack of sleep,” recalls Francesca, a mother from the UK. “And then I discovered that you can feed your baby lying on your side and rest at the same time.”
“Because of the short tongue frenulum, Maisie could only properly latch on to her breasts while lying on her side. The lactation consultant showed me how it's done. In this position, the flow of milk was optimal for my daughter, and it was easier for her to keep the nipple in her mouth. As she got older, she became much better at grabbing her breasts in normal positions,” says Sarah, mother of two from Australia.
6. Relaxed breastfeeding after caesarean section
If you can't find a comfortable position for breastfeeding after caesarean section, 3 try holding the baby on your shoulder in a reclining position – this does not stress the postoperative suture and allows you to breastfeed your baby comfortably. You can also try side feeding.
7. Sitting upright breastfeeding or “koala pose”
When breastfeeding in an upright position or “koala pose”, the baby sits with a straight back and a raised head on the mother's hip. 4 This position can be tried even with a newborn if it is well supported, but it is especially convenient for feeding a grown child who can already sit up by himself. The upright sitting position, or “koala pose,” is great for toddlers who suffer from reflux or ear infections and feel better sitting. In addition, this pose may be suitable for children with a shortened frenulum of the tongue or reduced muscle tone.
“When my daughter got a little older, I would often feed her in an upright position, which was more comfortable for both of us, and I could still hold her close,” recalls Peggy, a mother from Switzerland. “Besides, it was possible to discreetly breastfeed her in public places.”
8. Overhanging position
In this position, the baby lies on his back, and the mother bends over him
on all fours so that the nipple falls directly into his mouth. 4 Some moms say this breastfeeding position is good to use occasionally for mastitis, when touching the breasts is especially unpleasant. Some say that this breastfeeding position helps with blockage of the milk ducts, although there is no scientific evidence for this yet. You can also feed in the “overhanging” position while sitting, kneeling over the baby on a bed or sofa, as well as reclining on your stomach with support on your elbows. Pillows of various sizes that you can lean on will help you avoid back and shoulder strain.
“I have breastfed several times in the 'overhang' position for clogged milk ducts when no other means of dissolving the blockage worked. And this pose seems to have helped. I think it's because of gravity, and also because the breasts were at a completely different angle than with normal feeding, and my daughter sucked her differently, ”says Ellie, a mother of two from the UK.
Feeding in the "overhanging" position is unlikely to be practiced regularly, but in some cases this position may be useful.
“I used to breastfeed in the overhang position when my baby was having trouble latch-on,” says Lorna, mother of two in the UK. - This, of course, is not the most convenient way, but then I was ready for anything, if only he could capture the chest. We succeeded and have been breastfeeding for eight months now!”
9. Breastfeeding in a sling or in a sling
Breastfeeding in a sling takes some practice, but it can be used to go out, look after older children, or even do a little household chores.
The sling is also useful if the baby does not like to lie down or is often attached to the breast. Lindsey, a mother of two in the US, notes: “I used the carrier frequently for both of my children. When we were out, I tied the sarong around my neck and covered the carrier with it. Under such a cape, the baby can eat as much as he wants until he falls asleep.
This breastfeeding position is best when the baby is already good at breastfeeding and can hold his head up by himself. Any slings are suitable for breastfeeding, including elastic and rings, as well as carrying bags. Whatever option you choose, the main thing is that you can always see the face of the child, and his chin does not rest against his chest.
10. Double hand-held breastfeeding
Double hand-held breastfeeding (or “double-ball grab”) is great for mothers of twins—you can breastfeed both at the same time and keep your arms relatively free. 4 When feeding in this position, it is advisable to use a special pillow for breastfeeding twins, especially at first. It will provide extra support and help keep both babies in the correct position, as well as reduce the burden on the abdomen if you had a caesarean section. In addition, the hands are freer, and if necessary, you can deal with one child without interfering with the second.
“My twins were born very tiny and had to be fed every two hours at any time of the day or night. Very soon it became clear: if I want to do anything besides feeding, I need to feed them both at the same time, - says Emma, mother of two children from the UK. “I breastfed them two by hand using a breastfeeding pillow.”
Other good positions for breastfeeding twins are two criss-cross cradles, one baby in the cradle and the other close at hand, reclining feeding, or sitting upright (one baby on one side, the other on the other).
11. Breastfeeding in the "hand-supported" or "dancer's hand" position
muscle tone (which is typical for premature babies, children suffering from various diseases or Down syndrome), try supporting his head and your chest at the same time. 4 Grasp your chest with your palm underneath so that your thumb is on one side and all the others are on the other. Move your hand slightly forward so that your thumb and forefinger form a "U" just in front of your chest. With the other three fingers, continue to support the chest. With your thumb and forefinger, hold the baby's head while feeding so that his chin rests on the part of the palm between them, your thumb gently holds the baby on one cheek, and your index finger on the other. So the baby gets excellent support, and you can control his position and see if he is holding his breast.
1 Colson SD et al. Optimal positions for the release of primitive neonatal reflexes stimulating breastfeeding. Early Hum Dev . 2008;84(7):441-449. - Colson S.D. et al., "Optimal Positions for Provoking Primitive Innate Reflexes to Induce Breastfeeding." Early Hume Dev. 2008;84(7):441-449.
2 UNICEF UK BFHI [ Internet ]. Off to the best start ; 2015 [ cited 2018 Feb ]. - UNICEF UK, Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative, Start the Best You Can [Internet]. 2015 [cited February 2018].
3 Cadwell K. Latching - On and Suckling of the Healthy Term Neonate: Breastfeeding Assessment. J Midwifery & Women's Health. 2007;52(6):638-642. — Cadwell, K., "Latching and sucking in healthy newborns: evaluation of breastfeeding." F Midwifery Women Health. 2007;52(6):638-642.
4 Wambach K, Riordan J, editors. Breastfeeding and human lactation. Jones & Bartlett Learning ; 2014. 966 p . - Wambach K., Riordan J., "Breastfeeding and female lactation". Burlington, MA: Publishing House Jones & Bartlett Learning ; 2014. Pp. 966.
Noah's Ark for Children at the Jewish Museum Berlin - DW - 27.06.2021
Young visitors to the museum are invited to play with the world of Noah's Ark Photo: Kira Hofmann/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild/picture alliance
June 27, 2021
What visitors to the new children's exhibition of the Jewish Museum in Berlin will see and be able to do.
A huge wooden structure, seven meters high and 28 meters in diameter, is at the center of the new permanent children's exhibition Anoha at the Jewish Museum in Berlin. It opens on June 27, with a one-year delay due to the coronavirus pandemic, in a former flower wholesale market across from the main museum building in Berlin's Kreuzberg district.
The wooden structure symbolizes Noah's Ark, which is described in the first book of the Torah. The legend of the Flood, of which the story of Noah's ark is a part, is also present in Christian doctrine and in a number of other cultures. The exposition is intended for children aged 3 to 12, who are invited to get acquainted with the world of Noah's Ark in a playful way. The Berlin Museum became the first Jewish museum in the world, part of the exposition of which is intended exclusively for children and adolescents.Director of the Jewish Museum in Berlin Hetty Berg next to a unicorn created with the participation of Berlin schoolchildren Photo: Kira Hofmann/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild/picture alliance Building of the permanent children's exhibition of the Jewish Museum in Berlin Photo: Christian Behring/Pop-Eye/ picture alliance
150 real and mythical animals
The creators of the exhibition tried to reinterpret the story about the threat of the end of the world and connect it with modern processes - climate change, rising sea levels and the extinction of many species of animals. Specifically, it looks like this: the children enter the building through a narrow corridor, in which, with the help of sound and light effects, a feeling of an approaching storm is created, and find themselves in front of the ark. They can play together in it: cook food, take care of animals, feed them with colorful felt balls, and clean up after them.
The exposition area is 2700 square meters. On it, both in the ark and outside it, there are 150 different - both real and mythical - animals made from recycled materials together with sculptors in the workshops of the Berlin company Kubix. Touching the exhibits with your hands is not only allowed, but also encouraged. The museum has provided sufficient funds to repair or recreate anything that may be damaged by children during play.
Already at the entrance to the ark, children are met by a shaggy orangutan sitting on a swing. Hanging on a sling next to him is a life-size polar bear with wool from bath mats. With the help of a winch, children can lift it up and place it on the ark. Children themselves can deliver small animals to the ark through a hole in the hull using a slide made in the shape of a giraffe.
Who participated in the preparation of the exhibition
A richly decorated unicorn (a mythical creature very popular especially among elementary school girls) with a disco ball in its stomach, chain mail made of spoons and a multi-colored mane made of braided ropes is evidence that in the creation of animals, along with sculptors children participated. The preparation of the exposition was accompanied by a council made up of pupils from six primary schools in Berlin. The name of the exposition Anoha was also invented by children.Monika Grütters, Commissioner for Culture of the German Government Photo: Kira Hofmann/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild/picture alliance Visitors set sail on boats they made themselves in the museum's workshop Photo: Kira Hofmann/dpa/dpa-Zentralbild/picture alliance
In addition, there is an ocean of balls, a giant sloth to relax on, a theater stage and a workshop where children, for example, can build boats from used CDs with a sail from plastic potato chips and sail them on an artificial stream 14 meters long.