Foods to avoid for asthma baby
Foods Allergies & Asthma: Trigger Foods To Avoid
Written by WebMD Editorial Contributors
In this Article
- Foods To Avoid With Asthma
- Food Preservatives and Asthma
- Symptoms of Food Allergies and Asthma
- What Should I Do if I Have Food Allergies and Asthma?
- Children With Food Allergies and Asthma
Foods To Avoid With Asthma
Foods rarely trigger an asthma attack. But the symptoms of a severe allergic reaction to some foods can mimic asthma symptoms. The first step is to know if you have a food allergy. Any abnormal reaction to a food is considered an adverse reaction. Adverse reactions can either be:
- Food allergy: When your immune system reacts to proteins in foods that usually are safe or harmless. Your doctor can do skin tests to find out if you’re sensitive to certain foods.
- Food intolerance: When your body responds to the food, not your immune system. Examples include food poisoning, reactions to chemicals in food or drinks such as caffeine, or reflux.
The most common foods associated with allergic symptoms are:
- Cow's milk
- Shrimp and other shellfish
- Tree nuts
Food Preservatives and Asthma
Food preservatives can also trigger an asthma attack. Additives, such as sodium bisulfite, potassium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite, potassium metabisulfite, and sodium sulfite, are commonly used in food processing or preparation and can be found in foods such as:
- Dried fruits or vegetables
- Potatoes (packaged and some prepared)
- Wine and beer
- Bottled lime or lemon juice
- Shrimp (fresh, frozen, or prepared)
- Pickled foods
Symptoms of Food Allergies and Asthma
For most people, the usual symptoms of food allergies are hives, rash, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. If you have food allergies that trigger symptoms of an asthma attack, you will likely have these allergy symptoms, followed by coughing and wheezing. And if not caught quickly, anaphylaxis -- swelling of the throat, cutting off your airway -- may result.
If you suspect certain foods are asthma triggers for you, talk to your doctor. They can give you allergy skin tests to find out if you’re allergic to these foods.
What Should I Do if I Have Food Allergies and Asthma?
There are simple ways to say safe:
- Avoid the food trigger. Try not to come into contact with the food you’re allergic to. Always read labels and ask how foods are prepared when you eat out.
- Consider allergy shots. They can train your immune system to not overreact. The doctors will give you allergy shots (immunotherapy) -- a small amount of the substance that causes your allergy. After repeated shots over a period of time, your immune system eventually stops causing the allergic reaction. Ask your doctor if you’re a candidate for allergy shots. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is an alternative to allergy shots. You let the medicine dissolve under your tongue instead of getting a shot.
- Keep epinephrine with you. If your allergies are severe, you should keep two epinephrine shot kits with you that are always easy to get to. If you have any sign of anaphylaxis, don’t hesitate to use the epinephrine auto-injector, even if you aren’t sure your symptoms are allergy-related. Using the auto-injector as a precaution won’t hurt you and might save you. Dial 911 after you give yourself the shot.
Children With Food Allergies and Asthma
Children who have both asthma and food allergies are more likely to have both near-fatal or fatal allergic reactions to food and severe asthma, particularly if the asthma isn’t well-controlled. Food allergies can make persistent asthma more likely in young children.
- Causes & Prevention
- Symptoms & Types
- Diagnosis & Tests
- Treatment & Care
- Living & Managing
- Support & Resources
10 Food Tips to Control Your Child’s Asthma
Diet can be a powerful tool in treating an abundance of conditions. Childhood asthma is no exception. Many parents may be oblivious to the fact that the foods your child eats, from crackers to juice to yogurt, may be exacerbating his or her asthma symptoms. A few simple tips, in addition to an overall healthy diet and lifestyle, can help control your child’s asthma.1. Eat Vegetables Every Day
Vegetables are loaded with vitamins and minerals that can help support healthy lung function. Broccoli, spinach, and squash are among the most nutrient-dense veggies because they are packed with vitamins and minerals like Vitamins C and E and bioflavonoids.
One study has shown that lycopene, which is found in tomatoes, can help reduce lung inflammation. Garlic and onions are high in antioxidants, which have also been shown to help improve lung function by reducing the amount of free radicals in the body.
If your child is a picky eater, try hiding veggies in some of their favorite foods. For example, add a handful of chopped spinach to a quesadilla, or chop up some broccoli and carrots to mix in with their mac and cheese. Aim for three servings of vegetables per day.2. Feed on Fruit Often
Just like vegetables, fruits have the vitamins and minerals necessary for healthy lung function. Kiwi fruit is especially helpful when it comes to asthma because of its high levels of Vitamin C. Apples, which contain a bioflavonoid called quercetin, can help reduce inflammation. It can be relatively easy to get your child to eat fruit. Try adding a bigger selection of fruit to your child’s diet, opting for fresh and frozen variations as opposed to canned, which are much higher in sugar.
- Fruit smoothies can be a great way for your kids to accomplish the recommended 2 to 3 servings of fruit at once.
Milk can be very helpful to asthma sufferers. It contains high amounts of calcium and magnesium, which studies have shown can help reduce inflammation and increase airflow to help make breathing easier.
Kids need between 500 mg and 1,300 mg of calcium per day depending on age, and between 80 mg and 240 mg of magnesium per day depending on age. Add low-fat milk, unsweetened and low-fat yogurt, and cheese to your child’s diet to help them get the required amount of calcium and magnesium.4. Try Fresh Fish
Fish is high in Omega-3 fatty acids, or polyunsaturated fats. A recent study showed that kids who ate an adequate amount of Omega-3s from fish had better airflow and resulted in low dependency of asthma medication as opposed to children who did not consume fish.
- Try serving tuna, halibut, or salmon a couple of nights per week to help your child get more polyunsaturated fats.
Have a kid who absolutely hates fish? Walnuts also have strong amounts of Omega-3s.5. Eliminate Trans Fats
Trans fats can be dangerous to asthma sufferers. In the process of digesting these fats, the body produces chemicals that can cause inflammation in the lungs. Trans fats are found in butter, most baked goods and sweets, chips or other fried snacks, and nearly all fast foods. Avoid serving your child any processed food, and keep fast food meals to a bare minimum. Less processed food can mean less asthma symptoms.6. Grab Some Grains
Most kids get their protein from poultry and red meat. However, a study conducted in New Zealand showed that kids who get their protein from whole grains, such as oatmeal, wheat, and quinoa, were less likely to suffer from asthmatic wheezing.
Kids need at least three servings of whole grains daily. Grab some whole grain bread and spread on unsweetened peanut butter for breakfast, or make a whole grain pasta with vegetables for lunch. Quinoa is a powerhouse whole grain and has a great taste that is sure to please any picky eater.7. Say Goodbye to Sugar
Just like trans fats, sugars can cause inflammation during digestion. Also, too much sugar in anyone’s diet can lead to weight gain, which can result in exacerbated asthma symptoms. Limit eating sweets to once or twice per week. Opt for natural sweets, such as dried or fresh fruit, when a craving for sweets strikes.8. Curb Your Carbohydrates
Most kids love to munch on carbs. This can be especially detrimental to kids with asthma. The body digests processed carbohydrates as if they were sugars, which means that the airways can become inflamed if too many processed carbs are eaten.
- Limit the amount of crackers, chips, cookies, and other processed carbohydrate snacks.
- Substitute your normal breads, tortillas, and pastas for whole grain versions, which are much easier on the body and the lungs.
Different civilizations have used different spices for hundreds of years, and most of these spices were chosen for good reason! Certain spices can have healing effects on the body and even the lungs. Rosmarinic acid, found in spices, can help get rid of free radicals and inflammatory agents in the body. Try adding some spices or seasonings to your next casserole or pasta dish and help your asthmatic child breathe easier. Spices to try:
Dehydration can lead to water retention and inflammation, both of which can aggravate asthma symptoms. Getting enough water helps the body run smoother and the lungs work better. Choosing water instead of juice or soda can also help kids avoid too much sugar. Kids need between 5 and 10 glasses per day, depending on age. Be sure to give your asthmatic child water to drink whenever they get thirsty.Help Your Child Breathe Easier
Eating a healthy diet can be an important part of keeping your child’s asthma under control. Following some simple, common-sense diet guidelines can make a big difference. In addition to eating healthy, be sure to include some physical activity into your daily routine. Work with you child’s asthma doctor to discuss any diet restrictions that might be helpful.
A pediatric pulmonologist, like Dr. Mayank Shukla, can help find the right diet and medication regimen for your child with asthma. Call our office today to schedule your appointment and help your child breathe better.
Diet for Asthma - City Hospital No. 12, Barnaul: articles
The text is for informational purposes only. We urge you not to use diets, do not resort to any medical menus and fasting without medical supervision. We recommend reading: “Why can’t you go on a diet on your own?”.
A disease such as asthma is a chronic pathology. Her treatment is long, often lifelong. It is important not only to fight existing infections, but also to eliminate allergens from the environment of a sick person, which, among other things, can be found in food products. This will strengthen the immune system and direct its forces to resist the disease.
Doctors recommend that people with asthma follow dietary table number nine. Thanks to the compiled diet, it will be possible to reduce the number of relapses of the disease, relieve the severity of symptoms, and normalize metabolism. The energy value of the diet is within the normal range, that is, a person receives from 2300 to 2500 kcal per day. This allows you to regulate carbohydrate and fat metabolism, not gain excess weight and prevent the development of complications of the disease.
The Asthma Diet involves avoiding any foods that trigger allergies. If they are not so established, then you should follow the general rules of nutrition for allergy sufferers.
What should be excluded from the menu:
Salt is strictly limited. Its amount per day should not exceed 6-8 g.
Strong allergens are chicken eggs, and sometimes poultry meat, especially goose and duck.
The ban applies to seafood, sea fish, caviar.
Mushrooms, citrus fruits, raspberries, strawberries, tomatoes are subject to the restriction.
Chocolate, coffee, confectionery, carbonated drinks and honey provoke allergic reactions.
It is necessary to give up all seasonings, products with a sharp taste and smell - these are horseradish, radish, radish, etc. All histamine-like substances can cause an exacerbation of the disease, this list also includes spices such as onion and garlic.
Fatty beef and pork should be removed from the diet.
The asthma diet suggests avoiding foods with thiamine and histamine, as they release allergy mediators from target cells. Most of these substances are found in alcoholic beverages, cheese, canned fish, sauerkraut and raw smoked sausages. That is, in those products that have undergone fermentation. In this regard, canned food, pickles, marinades, smoked meats are prohibited in any form.
Asthma Elimination Diet
The Asthma Elimination Diet avoids foods that are potential allergens. To make it easier to identify them, it is recommended that a person with asthma keep a food diary. It needs to record what was eaten during the day, at what time it happened and whether there was any allergic reaction from the body to a particular dish. This will allow you to accurately identify the allergen without giving up many foods. For example, if a reaction appeared to buckwheat porridge with butter, then most likely the porridge containing gluten acted as an allergen. At the same time, you can not refuse oil, adding it to other dishes.
Buckwheat is completely abandoned for up to 3 weeks. If there is an improvement, then another attempt is made to introduce the product to the menu, but this is done very carefully. When the adverse reaction occurs again, the product is considered problematic and discarded. Naturally, such a test system is lengthy in time, but it is it that allows you to create an individual elimination diet, which cannot be obtained at a consultation with any allergist.
A diet designed in this way will reduce the manifestations of food allergies to a minimum, which means a reduction in the risk of exacerbation of the disease. At the same time, an excessive load will be eliminated from the immune system.
Asthma Diet Guidelines
Chemical additives commonly used in the food industry cause allergic reactions. It has been proven that substances such as tartrazine, salicylates, benzoate, sodium nitrite and sulfate, sodium glutamate have a negative effect on the course of asthma. Therefore, patients with bronchial asthma should make it a rule to minimize the consumption of any canned food, confectionery, semi-finished products - all those products that have a long shelf life. After all, often, in addition to the chemical additives declared on the packaging, these products contain traces of antibiotics, peanuts and other potential allergens.
Asthma is often caused by high sensitivity to molds. They are found in cheeses, cottage cheese, vegetables and fruits. Therefore, the next rule for asthmatics is to eat only fresh food that has been stored in the refrigerator for no more than a day. Vegetables and fruits must be carefully processed before consumption.
The third rule for people with asthma is proper cooking. Products can be stewed, boiled, baked. But it is worth remembering that broths on meat, fish and chicken often provoke allergies than just boiled fish, poultry or meat. Therefore, it must be changed at least three times during cooking. Avoid fried foods completely.
The fourth rule is to maintain the normal functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. It is important that the intestinal barrier function is not compromised, and that the organ allows allergens to freely pass through the intestinal-hepatic barrier. This will allow them not to linger in the body, which means that the risk of developing unwanted reactions will be minimized. Useful in this regard are fermented milk drinks, such as: yogurt, kefir, yogurt. The same applies to dietary fiber, which normalizes intestinal motility and stimulates local immunity.
The last but most important rule for patients with bronchial asthma is a varied and complete menu. Poor nutrition negatively affects the state of health no less than the use of unhealthy foods. With a limited intake of nutrients, the work of the respiratory muscles is disrupted, gas exchange suffers, and the immune system copes with its work worse.
How to make a menu for asthma?
Calculation of the daily ration should be based on the height and weight of the human body, on his age and physical activity. The main recommendation is as follows:
Proteins - up to 80 grams per day (but not less than 70 g). 50% of them must be of vegetable origin.
Fats up to 70 g per day (but not less than 50 g). The amount of vegetable fats - 40 g.
Carbohydrates - 300 g per day.
It is possible to relieve inflammation from the bronchi by avoiding carbohydrates that are quickly digested - sugar, jam, honey, etc. It is important that there is a sufficient intake of natural antioxidants in food. These are products containing selenium, vitamins C, E, A. Most of all they can be obtained from vegetable oils, vegetables and fruits.
Be sure to include brown rice, legumes, and green vegetables in your diet. They contain magnesium, which helps to normalize the tone of the muscles of the bronchi and reduces their excessive activity.
A sample menu might look like this:
Breakfast: rice porridge with sugar, baked pear, tea.
Snack: squash fritters with currant jam.
Lunch: vinaigrette with vegetable oil, steamed veal cutlets with mashed potatoes, rosehip broth.
Snack: banana and dried fruit compote.
Dinner: rabbit stew, cabbage and onion stew, green tea.
Before going to bed, a glass of kefir or other fermented milk drink.
It is impossible to provide a single nutrition menu for all patients with bronchial asthma, since food allergens are individual. However, the described prohibitions and rules are the most common and, adhering to them, you can make the most adapted diet for a particular person with asthma.
The author of the article: Kuzmina Vera Valerievna | Endocrinologist, nutritionist
Education: N. I. Pirogov, specialty "Medicine" (2004). Residency at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, diploma in Endocrinology (2006).
Hypoallergenic asthma diet
Hypoallergenic asthma diet
Home » Diseases » Bronchial asthma
A common chronic pathology of the respiratory tract - bronchial asthma, often disturbing the patient all his life. Allergy is considered the main reason why the disease develops. A variety of foods can be a provoking factor. A special hypoallergenic diet for bronchial asthma helps to prevent relapses and the development of exacerbations of the pathology.
The essence of the diet
The main principle of the nutrition system is to exclude or to the maximum limit potentially allergenic foods that have a pronounced sensitizing effect. It is also necessary to limit extractive substances that act as irritants. Nutrition in bronchial asthma remains complete, but at the same time, the consumption of sugar and products containing it, as well as salt intake, is reduced.
If you follow all the rules, the following results are possible:
- reduction of inflammation in the bronchi;
- metabolism stabilization;
- strengthening immunity.
The doctor prescribes to the patient a treatment table No. 9 , which provides for frequent (up to 5 times a day) fractional meals. It is advisable not to fry food, but to boil, steam and grill, bake, stew. We must try to eat at the same time, do not overeat at night. Some products must undergo preliminary preparation: cereals are soaked for 2 hours, potatoes - for 10-12 hours. It is better to boil the meat twice.
Calorie content and nutritional value of the diet (daily allowance for adults):
- energy value - 2000–2600 kcal depending on age, physical activity;
- proteins - 90-120 g;
- fats - 70-85 g;
- carbohydrates (complex) - maximum 300 g;
- liquid - 1.5-2 l;
- salt - up to 8 g.
Diet for adults
The main dishes for asthmatics should be vegetable soups, lean boiled meat and fish, salads, cereals, casseroles, stews. Salt food is recommended to a minimum. For dressing dishes, you should mainly use vegetable oils containing omega-3 fatty acids. It is allowed to eat no more than 300 g of bread (gray, black, with bran, seeds, rye).
Weak meat and fish broths are allowed, in which there is a minimum of extractive substances. Mandatory lactic acid products containing calcium and potassium. As desserts, it is allowed to make jelly, puddings.
Some products can be tried as substitutions. If there is intolerance to cow's milk, soy milk may be suitable, chicken eggs are replaced with less allergenic quail eggs, etc.
You can drink weak tea, fruit drinks, compotes, jelly with a minimum amount of sugar, juices diluted with water, rosehip broth. To remove sputum from the lungs, oatmeal broth, low-fat milk with a pinch of soda, herbal teas with St. John's wort, ivy, marshmallow are useful. Sweeteners are allowed. But it is better to do without them, because it is still not fully understood how they affect health.
The diet is allowed for pregnant and lactating women. However, it is necessary to make adjustments taking into account the development of the fetus and the weight gain of the pregnant woman.
|Designation||Calorie content, kcal (per 100 g of product)|
|Cereals and cereals|
|acidophilus (3. 2%)||58|
|Bakery and pasta|
|bread with seeds||302|
|Fish and seafood|
|boiled fish (lean)||42-160 (depending on type)|
|Fats and oils|
|green tea (without sugar)||0. 2|
|black tea (without sugar)|
The consumption of easily digestible carbohydrates is limited as much as possible: sugar, confiture, chocolate, sweets, confectionery products - cakes, muffins, pies, etc., ice cream. Honey in a small amount, if there is no intolerance to it, you can: it helps to expectorate mucus. You can not eat fatty poultry, meat, fish, rich broths from fatty meat.
Spicy appetizers, sauces and marinades, mushrooms, canned food, salted fish are removed from the menu. Some varieties of berries and fruits are limited - citrus fruits, raspberries, strawberries, bananas, etc., and juices squeezed out of them. With bronchial asthma in adults, alcohol is excluded: it contains tyramine, which can provoke an allergic reaction. Strong coffee and soda are prohibited: their use may cause increased excitability. Spices and spices are limited: pepper, garlic, etc. accelerate the absorption of irritants.
Use products containing tyramine and histamine as little as possible. These substances are present in significant quantities in food that has undergone preliminary fermentation: in hard cheese, sauerkraut, pickled vegetables, smoked meats, and canned fish. In addition, such products often contain chemical additives that, although not prohibited for use, are by no means useful for asthmatics - monosodium glutamate, salicylates, nitrite, sodium benzoate, etc.
If a specific allergen is reliably determined, then from the diet it should be excluded not only it, but also the food in which it is present. For example, if hypersensitivity to chicken eggs is detected, you can not use mayonnaise, pastries, creams. This is the so-called elimination diet, when only foods that cause seizures are removed, and other foods that are potentially dangerous for allergy sufferers are allowed to be consumed. At the same time, easily digestible carbohydrates still need to be limited.
The diet for asthma caused by aspirin intolerance involves the exclusion of products that contain acetylsalicylic and benzoic acid. Salicylates are found in citrus fruits, gooseberries, peaches, grapes, raspberries, strawberries, cucumbers, olives, broccoli, bell peppers, beans, nuts. They are also found in spices - turmeric, cinnamon, fennel, curry.
It is also necessary to check whether tartrazine (E 102) is included among the ingredients. This is a compound that turns food yellow and can cause an asthma attack in a short time. It can usually be found in chips, crackers, muesli, cakes, caramel, colored marshmallows, cheeses, canned food, instant noodles, packaged soups, chewing gum.
|Name||Calorie content, kcal (per 100 g of product)|
|Cereals and cereals|
|Nuts and dried fruits|
|mushrooms||9-61 (depending on type)|
|Meat and sausages|
|Fish and seafood|
|Confectionery and sweets|
|cake, pastry||400 (average)|
|Seasonings and sauces|
|dry red wine||68|
Table menu №9
- breakfast: cottage cheese dishes with low-fat sour cream, or porridge with a piece of butter, tea, diluted juice or rosehip broth;
- second breakfast: yogurt or fruit salad;
- lunch: dish with weak broth or vegetable soup. For the second - a piece of meat or fish for a couple, a steam cutlet, stewed vegetables. Tea, unsweetened compote or fruit drink;
- afternoon snack - kefir, fresh fruit. You can fruit mousse, jelly, pudding;
- dinner - vegetable salad, meat casserole or steam meatballs, carrot zrazy, tea or herbal infusion;
- before going to bed - a glass of kefir or natural yogurt, curdled milk, fermented baked milk.
Be sure to take multivitamin complexes with vitamins B, C, E. They are antioxidants and are required for the well-being of an asthmatic.
Diet for children
The child must receive all the substances necessary for growth and development. With bronchial asthma in children, the nutrition system does not have fundamental differences from the "adult" version. It is necessary to make a menu taking into account age. A diet enriched with lean meat and fish, dairy products, vegetables and fruits is recommended. Mandatory cereals that have enveloping properties. Sugar is best replaced with fruit. Food should only be lightly salted.
Foods that are undesirable to use even during remission - smoked meats, hard cheeses, canned food, sauerkraut, fast food. Milk and chicken eggs often cause a reaction.
Children should only have high-quality, freshly prepared food on their menu. It should be borne in mind that as the child grows older, individual products may cease to be irritants. You will need to adjust the diet, which must be approved by an allergist or pediatrician.
This therapeutic food system for asthmatics is balanced and contributes to the stabilization of the patient's health. The main thing is its strict observance.
According to the definition given by many medical publications, bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways in which they narrow, swell, and mucous discharge makes breathing difficult. To date, doctors cannot cure asthma, but there are ways to control the disease. Patients who follow all the doctor's recommendations can relieve seizures in time and lead an almost normal life. But at the same time continuing to hope that a cure for asthma will be found. So are there any prospects for a complete cure for this disease today?
Statistics, as they say, are relentless. Asthma is extremely widespread today: it affects from 1 to 18% of the population in various countries of the world. Patients with asthma suffer from a serious decrease in the quality of life, the treatment of the disease is long and expensive, about 250,000 people die from it in the world every year. About 1.4 million patients with bronchial asthma are registered in Russia, and up to 120,000 new cases are registered every year.
The symptoms of asthma vary from patient to patient, but in general the disease has the following manifestations:
- shortness of breath
- chest tightness or pain
- attacks of coughing or wheezing aggravated by a respiratory virus such as a cold or influenza
- wheezing (most often the first sign of bronchial asthma in children)
- sleep disturbances caused by shortness of breath, coughing or wheezing
In some cases, such as in children, asthma may only manifest as coughing fits.
Exacerbation of asthma symptoms can be caused by various factors. For example, in some people, the clinical manifestations and signs of asthma are aggravated by physical exertion, cold air, etc. occupational asthma is provoked by irritants in the workplace, such as chemical fumes, gases or dust. Allergic asthma caused by airborne allergens.
Currently, it has not been fully clarified what causes the development of bronchial asthma. But the main factors contributing to the occurrence of asthma are highlighted:
- Heredity. It has been established that if at least one parent suffers from asthma, then the probability of a child developing the disease is up to 30%. If both parents are sick, then the probability of the disease in the child increases to 75%.
- Occupational hazard.
- Bad Environment - Studies show that approximately 3-6% of new asthma cases are caused by air pollutants.
- Overweight and others.
Signs and symptoms of asthma can be triggered by a variety of respiratory infections, medications (including beta-blockers, aspirin, ibuprofen, and others), severe stress, sulfites and preservatives added to some foods and drinks, and others. allergens.
How asthma is classified
Asthma is divided into four main categories:
|Asthma classification||Clinical manifestations and symptoms|
|Light Intermittent||Mild symptoms up to two days per week and up to two nights per month|
|Light persistent||Symptoms more than twice a week, but not more than once a day|
|Moderate persistent||Symptoms once a day and more than one night a week|
|Severe persistent||Symptoms during the day most days and often at night|
Determining the severity of your asthma helps your doctor choose the best treatment. The severity of bronchial asthma often changes over time, which requires adjustments in therapy.
There is another classification - depending on the cause of asthma. If the attacks are provoked by allergens, then asthma is of the exogenous type. If asthma attacks occur as a reaction to diseases, then this is endogenous asthma. And there is a mixed type of disease. Occupational asthma and tension asthma are considered separately.
To rule out other possible illnesses, such as a respiratory infection or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the doctor will examine the patient and ask questions about clinical signs and symptoms and any other illnesses.
Additional testing is also underway and may include:
Spirometry. This test evaluates the degree of bronchial constriction. The doctor checks how much air and how quickly the patient can exhale after taking a deep breath.
Peak flowmetry. Research sets the strength of the breath.
Methacholine challenge. Methacholine is an asthma trigger that causes mild airway constriction when inhaled. If the patient reacts to methacholine, then he probably has bronchial asthma.
Study with nitric oxide. This study measures the amount of nitric oxide that is inhaled. When the airways are inflamed and nitric oxide levels are elevated, this is a sign of asthma.
Imaging research methods. High-resolution chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT) of the lungs and nasal cavities (sinuses) can reveal any structural abnormalities or diseases (such as infection) that can cause or exacerbate breathing problems.
Allergy testing can be done with a skin test or blood test. Allergy tests can detect reactions to pets, dust, mold, and pollen.
Eosinophils in sputum. This test detects the presence of certain white blood cells (eosinophils) in sputum that is released during coughing. Eosinophils are present when asthma symptoms develop.
Provocative tests for the detection of bronchial asthma of physical effort and cold asthma. In these tests, the physician measures the degree of airway obstruction before and after the patient performs strenuous exercise or takes a few breaths of cold air.
Prevention, timely education in management techniques and attention to asthma symptoms are key to stopping attacks before they start.
The medications most often used to help patients control their asthma are the most convenient and effective medications given through an inhaler. So it is possible to obtain the necessary concentration of the drug in the respiratory tract.
Two types of drugs are mainly used to relieve asthma attacks:
- Rapid-onset medicines for the relief of asthma symptoms (so-called emergency medicines). They help relax the smooth muscles of the airways, making breathing easier. These drugs include salbutamol, fenoterol, theophylline. In severe cases, the use of systemic glucocorticoids is indicated.
- Asthma control drugs. The most effective anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of asthma of any severity are inhaled corticosteroids.
Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) is a treatment option for asthma patients. Patients are given the so-called "therapeutic allergens" (allergovaccines) to reduce the body's sensitivity to their action. ASIT is contraindicated during exacerbation and severe asthma, as well as if patients have more than three allergens that provoke attacks.
To date, no cure has been found for asthma. But work in this direction continues. In particular, certain prospects are associated with extracorporeal blood purification (hemosorption and plasmapheresis). The use of botulinum toxin in such patients can also alleviate the course of asthma. But a treatment option that could completely rid the patient of seizures does not yet exist.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by recurrent attacks. In asthma, the inflammatory process in the airways during breathing provokes spasms of obstructive origin, up to asthma attacks  .
Today this pathology is a real scourge of our time. Asthma affects men, women, and children, in total up to 10% of the total population of the planet  . At the same time, about 250 thousand cases end in death. In the developed countries of the world, healthcare costs for combating bronchial asthma account for at least 2% of the total cost.
Classification and causes of occurrence
Depending on the origin, asthma is classified into:
- endogenous - this form of the disease can be provoked by cold air, infectious pathologies, severe nervous strain;
- exogenous - cause allergens that enter the respiratory tract;
- mixed - develops with the activity of exogenous and endogenous factors.
Depending on the symptoms, asthma is classified into:
- 1 intermittent - this type of disease is characterized by rather rare exacerbations - 1 time in 15-20 days;
- 2 mild persistent - attacks bother the patient 3-4 times a week, less often at night, not more than once in 7 days;
- 3 persistent moderate characterized by daily attacks during the day and regular night attacks, about 1 time in 5-6 days;
- 4 persistent high severity - asthma attacks disturb the patient several times during the day, day and night.
Depending on the clinical manifestations, the following types of asthma are distinguished:
- allergic – caused by triggers in the form of allergens, proceeds as an inflammatory process of the respiratory tract;
- non-allergic - is chronic and does not depend on allergens;
- obstructive - characterized by obstruction of the airways in the bronchi, which interferes with normal air circulation;
- obesity asthma - characterized by poor opening of the airways;
- late onset - typical of older women, usually a reaction to certain medications.
The main risk factors for developing bronchial asthma include:
- 1 increased stress load;
- 2 genetic predisposition - if both parents have asthma, the probability of developing their child is 70%;
- 3 natural and climatic conditions;
- 4 frequent pneumonia;
- 5 smoking, both active and passive;
- 6 presence of other pathologies of allergic origin - allergic rhinitis or dermatitis;
- 7 obesity;
- 8 susceptibility to frequent catarrhal pathologies;
- 9 constant contact with allergens - house dust, pet hair or house flower pollen;
- 10 chemical irritants at work;
- 11 polluted air in megacities;
- 12 excessive exercise.
The main symptom of the disease is a severe asthma attack, which usually consists of 3 stages: These include: inability to take a full deep breath, incessant sneezing, wet cough, copious discharge from the nose and respiratory tract;
However, not only attacks can diagnose the disease. The main symptoms of bronchial asthma include:
- 1 cough worse at night;
- 2 frequent colds with respiratory complications;
- 3 pain in the sternum, accompanied by general weakness and tachycardia;
- 4 severe dyspnea that worsens even with mild exertion;
- 5 cyanosis of the skin of the face;
- 6 anxiety, panic;
- 7 wheezing and wheezing;
- 8 severe cough with sputum;
- 9 excessive sweating;
- 10 in some cases increased pressure;
- 11 allergic reactions in various manifestations;
The patient's condition worsens on contact with smoke, allergens, changes in air temperature and physical exertion.
Asthma can cause serious complications that can be life-threatening:
- pathology of the respiratory tract of an infectious nature;
- vascular and heart diseases;
- constriction of the bronchi, which makes breathing much more difficult;
- pulmonary emphysema - a violation of gas exchange, which provoke changes in lung tissue;
- bronchiectasis - chronic pathology of the lungs and bronchi;
- status asthmaticus;
- side effects of drugs that a patient takes for a long time to stabilize severe asthma.
The prognosis of bronchial asthma with adequate therapy is favorable. It is important at the first signs of the disease not to self-medicate, but to seek medical help as soon as possible so that the pulmonologist selects the most effective treatment regimen.
To prevent the development of asthma, the following measures must be observed:
- 1 during epidemics, all preventive measures must be observed, as well as vaccination;
- 2 minimization of contact with allergens;
- 3 keep the home and workplace clean;
- 4 remove mold at work and at home;
- 5 adhere to breastfeeding;
- 6 use only hypoallergenic cosmetics;
- 7 treat colds in time;
- 8 avoid stress and increased emotional tension as much as possible;
- 9 change air conditioner filters in time;
- 10 do not open windows during flowering;
- 11 stop smoking, avoid secondhand smoke.
Patients with bronchial asthma to prevent new attacks and the development of complications should:
- periodically take vitamin complexes;
- give up alcohol;
- get rid of dust accumulation objects in the house, such as carpets, massive soft toys, rugs;
- ventilate the apartment every day and do wet cleaning;
- do breathing exercises;
- use hypoallergenic detergents and cleaners;
- limit contact with pets, including ornamental fish, whose food may contain allergens;
- replace upholstered furniture upholstered in fabric with leather or leatherette;
- Only use duvets and pillows with synthetic fillings.
Treatment of asthma in official medicine
It is impossible to diagnose asthma only on the basis of the patient's complaints. First, the doctor listens to the patient's lungs with a stethoscope; with asthma, wheezing and whistling are clearly audible. If necessary, the pulmonologist prescribes spirography, the results of which show the volume and speed of air movement during inhalation and exhalation.
Pathology can proceed differently in each patient, respectively, and the method of therapy is selected individually  . To stop the attack, you should first calm the patient, give 150 g of warm water to drink in small sips, and only then use the inhaler. The most important thing is to prevent the development of panic. Asthmatic attacks are more easily and quickly tolerated by many patients in a sitting position. If within 20-30 minutes the patient does not feel better, then it is better to call an ambulance.
Drug treatment involves a basic course that controls the course of asthma: glucocorticosteroids and monochannel antibodies, as well as a symptomatic course aimed at preventing pathology: xanthines, antibacterials and expectorants  .
To minimize the number and intensity of seizures, patients with AD should:
- 1 get rid of fleecy blankets, bedspreads and carpets at home;
- 2 use air purifiers at home and at work  ;
- 3 minimize contact with any pets;
- 4 get rid of house insects and dust mites in a timely manner.
Good results in the fight against asthma can be achieved with the help of allergen-specific immunotherapy, which involves long-term vaccination for 4-5 years. In this case, the patient is injected with microscopic doses of the allergen, which leads to a decrease in the sensitivity of the immune system.
The success of treatment is also influenced by the conscious behavior of the patient himself, he must adhere to the following rules:
- do not miss scheduled medical examinations and seek medical help in case of exacerbation of seizures;
- do not independently change the treatment regimen  ;
- read non-fiction medical literature about asthma.
Useful products for asthma
Proper nutrition for asthma allows you to normalize metabolism, stop the inflammatory process, speed up recovery, so diet No. 9 is recommended for such patients, which involves the use of such products:
- 1 the maximum amount of fresh vegetables and fruits to saturate the weakened body with microelements and vitamins;
- 2 lean meats;
- 3 baked goods made from rye flour;
- 4 cereals with butter;
- 5 fermented milk products;
- 6 light, hateful first courses;
- 7 compotes and fruit drinks.
In this case, meals should be fractional and frequent, and dishes should be steamed, baked, boiled or stewed.
Folk remedies in the treatment of asthma
- Traditional healers recommend drinking 50 g of dry wine to loosen sputum during an attack. Valerian tincture has a similar effect;
- rub the patient's chest with melted bear fat;
- take a solution of hydrogen peroxide, on the first day, 1 drop three times a day, on subsequent days, increase by 1 drop, thus bringing to the reception of 3 drops 3 times a day  ;
- during an attack, apply mustard plasters to the calves of the legs;
- Eucalyptus oil is famous for its decongestant effect, so a piece of cotton wool soaked in oil is placed at the head of the patient in the evening so that the patient inhales its vapors all night;
- to get rid of accumulated sputum, you can take a solution of water with honey in a ratio of 1: 1 with the addition of cinnamon;
- daily eat ½ head of onion, which relieves the inflammatory process and narrows the bronchi;
- daily drink ginger tea to relieve spasms in the bronchi;
- drink three times a day, 100 g of decoction of birch leaves;
- drink tincture of peeled aloe leaves in dry red wine with honey for 10 days ;
- warm tea with viburnum berries will help ease the attack;
- to cope with shortness of breath will help a decoction of dry leaves of celandine;
- A drink made from fresh figs drenched in warm milk will help beat an asthma attack.
Hazardous and harmful foods for asthma
In case of an exacerbation, foods with increased antigenic activity should be removed from the diet, such as:
- muffins and pastries made from white flour; ;
- fatty meats; ;
- store-bought mayonnaise and sauces;
- carbonated soft drinks;
- first courses based on strong rich broths from meat and fish;
- smoked products;
- citrus fruits; , raspberries, melons, tomatoes, eggplants.
Sources of information
- Herbalist: golden recipes of traditional medicine / Comp. A. Markov. — M.: Eksmo; Forum, 2007. - 928 from
- Popov A.P. Herbalist. Treatment with medicinal herbs. - U-Factoria LLC. Yekaterinburg: 1999. - 560 p., ill.
- Asthma, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11430178/
- Asthma in adults: Principles of treatment, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/316/
- Asthma. What Is It? https://www.health.harvard.edu/a_to_z/asthma-a-to-z
- What’s new in the updated asthma guidelines?, https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/whats-new-in-the-updated-asthma-guidelines-2021040722306
- Asthma. Physiology, Immunopharmacology, and Treatment, https://www.elsevier.com/books/asthma/austen/978-0-12-068450-2
- Asthma. Basic Mechanisms and Clinical Management, https://www.elsevier.com/books/asthma/barnes/978-0-12-079027-2
Attention! The information is for informational purposes only and is not intended for diagnosis and treatment. Always consult with a specialized doctor!
Bronchial asthma - questions and answers
What is bronchial asthma? This is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bronchi, which can be successfully controlled only with long-term (often permanent) therapy. With bronchial asthma, characteristic symptoms appear - shortness of breath, cough, wheezing in the chest, a feeling of heaviness. If the narrowing of the bronchi is very strong, then an asthma attack occurs.
Why does asthma occur? The mechanism of influence of factors leading to the formation of AD is complex and interdependent. Genetic predisposition, obesity, allergens, smoking, nutrition, etc. have an influence.
Is it possible to completely recover from an illness? Unfortunately, a person's predisposition to bronchial asthma will remain for life, but modern treatment can make its manifestations recede. Asthma sufferers can lead normal, active lives if they learn to keep their illness under control.
One of the reasons for the development of bronchial asthma is allergy, which can affect not only the bronchi (in atopic asthma), but also other human organs. Elimination measures are important here. The word "elimination" in translation from English means destruction. In this case, these are measures aimed at eliminating or reducing contact with allergens.
It is worth exterminating cockroaches, donating animals to good hands, getting rid of mold on walls and objects, and remembering that some drugs can cause bronchospasm, as well as the development of skin allergic reactions.
More difficult with house dust mites - you need to regularly ventilate the bedroom, open the curtains during the day (mites do not like light), remove all dust accumulators (carpets, double curtains, open bookcases), give preference to synthetic mattresses and pillows, do general cleaning 1 once a week, wet cleaning - daily. Keep in mind that a conventional vacuum cleaner does not remove, but sprays mites around the room, so it is better for an asthma patient not to vacuum himself and not be in the place where the vacuum cleaner was working for an hour!
But it is not possible to completely avoid contact with external allergens such as pollen and mold. But they can be reduced! During the flowering season, for those who suffer from pollen allergies, it is necessary to limit trips to nature, not to weed the garden. When leaving the house, put on glasses and a hat, and wash your face when you return. Do not ride in cars with open windows. And, if possible, spend a dangerous "allergic season" in other parts of the world with a different flowering calendar.
Food allergies rarely cause asthma exacerbations - mainly in young children. A food should not be ruled out unless it has been proven (usually by a food test) that it causes an allergic reaction. But remember that sulfites (preservatives often found in medicines and foods such as potato chips, shrimp, dried fruits, beer, and wine) are often implicated in the development of severe asthma exacerbations.
Don't forget that canned foods are more allergenic than fresh ones, and fried foods are more allergenic than boiled ones. That alcohol can not only cause allergies, but also enhance the allergenic properties of other products. Among fruits and berries, the most allergens are citrus fruits (oranges, tangerines, etc.), pineapple, melon, strawberries, wild strawberries,
raspberry. Among the nuts - hazelnuts, almonds, peanuts; among vegetables - tomatoes, eggplant, radish, radish, horseradish. Fish in any form, shrimp, squid, mussels, caviar, chocolate, honey, hot spices, sauces and spices are also products of increased allergenic danger.